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African-American Community and Crack Cocaine

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Among other factors that cause significant impact or drug abusers among African-American Communities says the beginning of the 20th century s the affordability nd massive availability of crack cocaine among those parts of the United States be t urban or rural.  In order to reduce the negative behaviors along with outcomes that are associated with substance abuse nd its dependence, t s necessary to intervene among popular behaviors nd implicate new models that are needed to be developed that specifically address the social nd economic s well s cultural environment of African Americans n the longer aspect.

Besides this, the use of crack cocaine s present among all ethnic groups including African Americans therefore t s important to take look t the 1986 presidential drug abuse act which s considered s n effective nd workable document even today.  It contains the measures nd efforts that are needed to be undertaken to reduce the harm nd outreach effects of crack cocaine abuse.

 The fact s that there are many crack abusers who are unable to access the drug treatment from specially designed programs, among which s n impatient or outpatient bracket rehabilitation facility or mental Health Centers due to several reasons among which s the unaffordability of prolong treatment s well s expensive medicine that s rarely available to poor users. 

According to Alexander, 2008, there are many controversies surrounding the massive use of crack cocaine among African Americans nd the tradition that they have been following goes back to the 1960’s when t was more of fashion to use cocaine instead of abuse.  Slowly but gradually this fact gained prominence that this fashion became necessity n shape of substance abuse nd surprisingly t gained immense popularity among African Americans which went to such n extent that there was popular belief among United States people that t s pot of African American culture to introduce their use with substance abuse not only for the sake of enjoyment or pleasure, but also s means of reducing worries nd tension.  Such was the belief that gained popularity among African Americans who embraced substance abuse s righteous path (Alexander, 2008). 

African American culture

Since the slavery, African Americans have had nag of using addictive substances s part of their daily routing. After work, men nd women used substance abuse for the asked of relaxation from tiring day’s work. This tradition has been n place for 300 years or more. Other factors created n impact on this tradition by deepening their relation with addictive substances. Their association with crack cocaine s n place since early 19th century, because major part of African American community lived on or below the poverty line for decades nd they had little to Cherish, little food, less security nd virtually no employment opportunity along with negligible education, all was contributed to great deal into what later became known s crack cocaine culture among the African-Americans.  Complex dynamics of crack era on distressed African American family’s experienced on these prevailing conditions along with social structures nd norms that for historically rooted; their families existed under severe distress nd structural challenges n their residential areas.  Hyper segregation of African Americans nd historical forces were also part behind this phenomenon. 

History of Crack

Another controversial aspect of this black tradition surfaced during the 1980’s when CIA was blamed to have spread the cocaine culture among African Americans.  One reason was given that CIA was too lenient or drug culture control nd allowed backs to be imported, therefore, cocaine nd other drugs were easily available throughout the United States t n affordable price which made t popular substance among those who could barely afford expensive drugs or alcohol. 

Affects on health & culture

Like heroin, cocaine s considered s powerfully addictive drug which leaves deep impacts on human health nd the longer run. It s unlikely that its user may be able to predict or even to control the extent to which he or she will continue the use of cocaine.  This s among the first signs of drug abuse when n individual seems to lose his will power to control the quantity s well s how long can he use t nd when to quit. 

Even f n addict quits using cocaine, t s very likely that the habit be relapse t some point of time, which has devastating results on the user’s health.  Relapsing s common thing n cocaine drug rehabilitation process because the user finds t extremely difficult to quit the drug nd there’s always possibility of relapse with the worst part s that n case of relapse, the consequences are like threatening.  Studies have shown that the periods of abstinence or even exposure to accuse according to the drug use can trigger tremendous craving nd relaxes to the user. 

In case of repeated exposure of cocaine, t has been observed that the brain n adapts while t becomes less sensitive nd tolerant to natural reinforces nd to the drug itself.  It s important to note the cocaine use n close the drop n cocaine use age, nd African American teenager’s sense the year 2009 which s good sign nd presents unfairness among African American youth, the side effects nd devastating stages that might occur n drug abuse.  According to the survey, groups from 18 years to 25 years had the highest use of cocaine nd other drugs but this has reduced by 6% n the last four years. 

There’s also believe that cocaine s less addictive because t lacks the physical withdrawal symptoms that are found n other drugs but this s yet to be proven right nd still remains theory.  The trend of drug abuse has been the trend of multiple drug abuse or group abuse n the last year or so n which cocaine s used along with alcohol nd other sedatives like prescription drugs or even heroin by combining n upper or downer manner.  The use of other drug with cocaine s to reduce the side effects of the primary addiction which s popular belief among drug abusers, although, this requires verification (Kumar, 2010).

For pregnant women were involved n cocaine abuse while the babies n the world, many problems surface that can cause nd early delivery, severe harm to the fetus, trouble n paying attention, nd regulation of general behaviors.  Not only t affects the mother, but the facts on the fetus are even more depressing because children who are exposed to cocaine drug during their early trimester of development nd to have experience slower growth nd slower mental nd physical development compared to children were never exposed to any drug abuse.

According to recent study, large portion of African American crack abusers have variety of three taxing conditions that could impact their readiness when t comes to treatment nd this would be s substantial difference between individuals n guarding such conditions, what s also important n this context s the fact that pretreatment intervention emphasizes supportive environment for African American participants along with education n the process of the coming of substance abuse treatment patient, nd to provide them better understanding of concepts of recovery.

The rehabilitation program

The program has been designed n such way that t provides supportive conceptual framework of the four state approach that consists of the patience awareness of the problem, nd understanding of fixing the issue, patients requirement for n open attitude towards addressing the problem, nd lastly, positive moment s result often proper eight behavior nd will to seek recovery once nd for all (Creek, 2010).

Researchers have devised comprehensive case management to Italy t allows percentage of African American families that have been suffering from cocaine substance abuse on large scale.  Addressing such families that are collectively involved nd drug abuse s massive task nd needs utmost of attention nd caution because unlike n individual that can be addressed relatively easily, case of handling whole family used n substance abuse s not only difficult but also time consuming nd requires sufficient resources nd ample time. 

Crack cocaine and its effects

As per O’Shea, 2010, crack cocaine nd its effects can be regarded s major abandonment of parental responsibilities, n African American tradition of extended family served s step towards resolving various financial s well s social crises. There are factors that may prove to be helpful n explaining the low rates of treatment entry n various studies that concluded large chunk of African American population that was involved n collective crack cocaine use age, 32% reported that they would need help n transportation, while 41% used substance abuse because of worries of low Financial Resources nd lack of employment (O’Shea, 2010). 

Remaining 21% had less than sub witch nd resources to address treatment nd we’re not really available to handle the issue n proper manner.  Under the circumstances the effects of intervention on treatment initiation were examined poorly nd t was found that making n appointment, to enter the treatment process, was not only difficult n various aspects for these participants who were neither willing to face the realities of life, instead, we’re willing to remain n the realms of drug abuse, thus embracing n escape route from there or original worries nd true problems (Shea, 2010). 

Cocaine addiction causes the pathways inside the brain to be alerted which s evident by physical changes n the nurse cells when their brought on by the drug.  The facts can be observed when neurons communicate with each other releasing neurotransmitters into the gap or synapses between the nerve cells.  It has also been observed that Cocaine acts by attaching specific proteins called Cocaine receptors which are found n the brain, spinal cord, nd gastrointestinal track.  As soon s these compounds are taking, their ties to certain Cocaine receptors nd the brain nd spinal card through which they can affect only change the way person experiencing pain (O’Shea, 2010).

Also, applied medications have tendency to affect the brain which s visible when the user perceives pleasure, results n the initial euphoria or sense of well being that many Cocaine produce, this condition s commonly known s addiction.  It s safe to zoom that these medications are only save when used with other substances under n Physicians’ supervision.  Particularly they should not be use with alcohol, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines.  Other substances induce slow breathing nd these effects n combination with Cocaine could lead to life threatening respiratory depression.

Those patients who are prescribed Cocaine four appeared of time middle of physical dependence on them, which s not the same s addiction.  Continuous exposure to Cocaine causes the body to adapt or sometimes resulting n tolerance nd withdrawal symptoms of bone n the cessation of drug use.  There are individuals who take purse five Cocaine medications but they must be given these medications under the appropriate medical supervision, they should also be medical Aesop are wise when stopping use n order to reduce or avoid withdrawal symptoms.  These symptoms of withdrawal can lead to restlessness, bone nd muscle pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, goose bumps nd coal fleshes n voluntary leg movements etc. 

The fear of brain damage among young drug users nd substance abusers s much higher than adults.  Scientists have studied the brains of 34 they seized intravenous drug abusers of heroin nd methadone nd compare them with the brains of 16 young people who are not drug users. 

Examination revealed brain damage nd drug abuser to normally seen n much older people where s Dennis nerve cells were n the areas of the brain involved n learning memory nd emotional well-being nd are similar to damage found n the early stages of Alzheimer.  Scientists have determined that opiates create their alluring effects by holding on the specific areas of the brain cells, turn opiate receptors.  Studies have indicated that opiates are notorious nd are addictive qualities nd show signs of both physically s well s psychologically inductive.  In terms of physical addiction, the body becomes dependent on opiates to achieve internal homeostasis, nd when the cessation of such opiates would cause withdrawal symptoms. 

Administering the Risk

This interpretation has also found from previous studies that coupons nd other techniques of removing financial barriers n terms of treatment can be n effective measure nd increasing treatment entry.  Either way, the readily availability of proper treatment has potential to impact the user n positive manner nd to convince him one way or another to go for prolonged treatment procedure to get rid of life threatening have t once nd for all.

Rodman Creek, conducted research that there are huge number of crack cocaine users among African Americans even to this day.  Not only this impacts on their mental health, physical health, nd social integration, but t also leaves them with little choice to connect socially both n their own communities s well s n the larger aspect.  There s legitimate requirement to address fundamental reasons of substance abuse among various communities particularly African Americans who have embraced crack cocaine s part of their social s well s general culture (Creek, 2010). 

In addition to this, various studies conducted during the last three years, have shown that there s changing aspect to the drought views nd n increasing trend towards the treatment nd initiating proper life away from the darkness of crack cocaine nd other drugs.  Despite the fact, they were n viewer’s conducted by drug users who experienced n minimize social activity, some replied that they wanted to get away from the misery of drug use nd want to spend proper life where they are able to face the world s well s upcoming challenges on social s well s financial terms.

Austin Cone, 2011, suggested various rehabilitation programs that have been designed to counteract cocaine related relaxed rigors including stress, vaccine that would sequester cocaine n the blood stream nd prevented from reaching various parts of the brain.  Researchers have also suggested that along with medications which are effective n treating this addiction, t s important to combine them with comprehensive behavioral therapy program n the most effective method to reduce drug abuse n the longer run (Cone, 2011) . 

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There have been some encouraging figures n many surveys conducted during 2008 according to which, youth drug abusers among African American Communities decreased s compared to the 2007 figures to almost 3%, uses levels reaching their lowest point since early 1990’s.  Significant declines have also been observed among adult users nd abusers to 2%.  Study has also showed many positive findings n school nd college going students who perceive the risk of harm associated with powder cocaine that increased significantly during the same time (Cone, 2011).

Several models have been proposed n the guard to the relationship between low doses of self administrative cocaine use age, previous evaluation revealed that does s near the threshold of self administration may lead to help for results.  In addition to this, the self administration of crack cocaine could result from inhibitory effects that mask or overshadow load those s stimulatory effects.  The research has been verified repeatedly nd has proved to be effective for crack cocaine users. 

As per Cone, 2011, several laboratory tests have devised the fact that reducing dosage n n appropriate manner, to decreased brain threshold behavior. Studies have also noted that reinforcing affects of reduce cocaine treatment are heterogeneous with micro infusion studies done previously that showed functional differences between the interior nd posterior VT A n the locomotor activating functions.  Additionally, use of ethanol nd acetaldehyde for self administered but not limited to VTA.  It s reported that concentrations between 0-5000 NL cocaine fail to support self administration nd the VTA (Cone, 2011). 

It was also found by McGregor, (McGregor, 2011), that self administration of cocaine by means of methodological distinctions besides injector location between the current study nd reports done earlier, t s was able that cocaine abuse has been reduced to dramatic level nd there’s less likelihood that t will relapse any time n the future, ensuring n better health without crack cocaine abuse.

It s important to dependent Cocaine users for other psychiatric nd substance use disorders, especially alcohol nd cocaine dependence because their frequent comorbidities nd Cocaine dependent patients nd can aggravate depressive symptoms.  Bipolar illness s rare but has substantial treatment implications along with anxiety disorders which frequently coauthor with depression, traumatic expression, nd posttraumatic stress disorder are common nd should be thoroughly evaluated nd treated.  Independent disorders are psychotic conditions occurring during periods of sustained nd sustains or having non set before the substance use disorder.  A positive family history can aid n identifying nd n independent psychiatric disorder (Herd, 2011). 

The treatment should initially focus nd stabilize nd of the patient substance abuse disorder, with n initial goal of 2 to 4 weeks of systems before embracing other issues.  Patients so persistently display symptoms of psychotic disorder during systems should be considered s having n independent disorder nd should receive from psychiatric treatment.  Although depressive symptoms often improved following the treatment admission, significant symptoms will persist n some patients that can be administered by antidepressant medicines n patients that are diagnosed with opiate dependence nd depression, which has n adequate dose for t least six weeks (McGregor, 2011).

Crack Cocaine African Americans

Studies have found that there s rebellious tendency among African Americans throughout the 1950’s nd 1960’s when Martin Luther king was leading them to black revolution which changed the history of United States traditional white supremacy by giving them self awareness s well s fight for their right to live n peace nd harmony with other cultures.  This s far from conspiracy theory nd borders with reality that there was n uprising among African Americans during the 60’s which turned political environment into more of nightmare for the American government (Smith, 2008).

As per Smith, (2008), there was very small, virtually nonexistent that class among the African American community throughout the United States along with the departure of low skill jobs from the Midwest to the north eastern cities of the country, similar situation prevailed during the 1970’s which only increased their problems, suburb nd n areas where most of these populations resided, we’re not only far from commercial centers but also had transportation nd other problems (Smith, 2008). 

It s not difficult to understand that under such circumstances, t provided n ample opportunity to the African American community s particularly their youth was major league affected by such historical events.  Crack cocaine was popular substance among the inner city population throughout the 1960’s nd early 1970’s which gained even more popularity during the late 1970’s but this time t was not among Poor’s, rather the rich.  Cocaine users particularly drug leaders began to smoke free base during the 1980’s which was considered s challenging nd costly process that involved powdered form of cocaine with ether burned over n open flame (Whiteman, 2009). It also represented nd innovation which allowed its users to conveniently smoke cocaine vapors on low cost per dose base. 

The use of crack cocaine spread like wildfire among black Americans nd even other communities were not left behind despite the timing of fact you’re nd prevalence was different among various cultures throughout the United States. The use of crack cocaine became more of n obsession which dominated lives of its users particularly African Americans who seemed to have taken of refuge behind t nd even began to organize their lives around drug habit (Herd, 2011). 

Historically, such behavior was never n observed anywhere n the world where community nd braced drug s part of its culture.  Dedicated crack users who sold drugs, we’re committed to spread t to all the communities throughout the country, did so successfully by reaching markets that were flooded with African Americans who belonged to poor background, always n need of cash by any means, capitalized on the situation whole heartedly.  Crack cocaine was easily available downtown Manhattan, New York, Chicago nd many other major states across United States.  Merchants sold t across the street, mostly African Americans nd generally Mexican s well s Latinos to name few (Herd, 2010).


There are more factors that emphasize prompt antidepressant treatment including greater severity of depression.  Psychological therapies are s effective s Pharmacotherapy n the treatment of made to moderate depressive nd anxiety symptoms.  Treatment of personality disorder s known Pharmacologic.  If depression persists, psychosocial modalities such s cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, or contingency management, have some evidence to support their efficacy n opiate dependent patients (Hamadan, 2011).

For the treatment of insomnia n anxiety, Trazodone nd Nefazodone are healthy agents, although Nefazodone should be used with caution because of reports of liver Toxicity, Mirtazapine, sedative antidepressant, s logical alternative.  A baseline electrocardiogram (EGG) s recommended prior to TCA trial nd opiate users.  Effective alternatives include antidepressant nd anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.  A portion of pregnant women with substance dependence continue using substances despite awareness of the potential harm to the fetus.  In France can sustain adverse effects from maternal Cocaine use, although t s difficult to separate factors due to Opiate use of from those due to the abuse or other drugs, poor prenatal care, poor nutrition, or other complications may arise (Hamadan, 2011).

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