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Measuring Teacher Effectiveness in the 21st Century

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The Historical Overview of Teacher Evaluation

Teacher assessment is not a new issue of concern. The historical overview of teacher evaluation must be taken into account before measuring teacher effectiveness in the 21st century and providing the specific recommendations for the initiatives. The historical periods can be divided into the following stages: the early days of supervision and evaluation, scientific management, clinical supervision, developmental and reflective models, the 21st century. Nowadays, teacher’s effectiveness enters a new phase of its evaluation – professional behaviour.

The Early Days of Supervision and Evaluation

Education was not supposed to be a professional field of study or discipline in the 1700s. Initially, the clergy and local authorities were the existing power structures, which hired teachers and made decisions about their work. Supervisory committees and individual supervisors checked the quality of teaching and had almost unlimited power for the establishment of criteria. In such a way, the teachers were considered to be the servants of society.

The common schooling movement and the growth of the industrial base gave rise to large cities with more complex systems of school than they had had earlier in the 1800s. A demand for educators with experience in specific disciplines started to grow in these large urban areas. Afterwards, this trend of specialized roles spread over rural areas and small towns. At that moment, it was recognized that the clergy did not certainly have the knowledge basis for the reasonable judgments about the effectiveness of teachers. Teaching was observed as a difficult task that required complex feedback in the mid-1800s. Thus, supervision began to put emphasis on the improvement of training. It was realized that pedagogical skills were an essential element of effective instruction. “Though, there was no formal or only little conversation about these skills in the period up until the mid-1800s, the recognition of their significance was the first step towards the integrated development of teacher expertise” (Manzano, Frontier & Livingston, 2011).

The Period of Scientific Management

Two competing views of education were dominated in the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The first vision was introduced in the works of John Dewey and the second sight was presented by Frederick Taylor. Dewey claimed that school had to be organized in order to allow the further development of democratic ideals for students. He supported such progressive ideas as the integration of content areas, differentiation based on student learning needs, the connection of classroom with the real world and student-centred education. These concepts were supposed to be the means of linking the gap between the active roles of students as citizens with their passive role of learners.

On the other hand, Taylor took a scientific interpretation of management. He believed that the ways for the improvement of production could be used for more systemic tasks, which had influence on education, as well. Later, his principles of factory management were applied to the supervision of schools as it is described in the book Public School Administration: “Our schools are, in a sense, factories in which the raw products (children) are to be shaped and fashioned into products to meet the various demands of life. The specifications for manufacturing come from the demands of the twentieth century civilization, and it is the business of the school to build its pupils according to the specifications laid down” (Manzano, Frontier & Livingston, 2011, p. 15). Cubberley offered the cases in which the scientific management approach could be used for schools and teachers.

Wetzel recommended determining the effectiveness of teachers by the procedures of student learning using the Cubberley's work as a model. Nevertheless, he moved away from the comparison of factories with schools and suggested the following mechanisms for scientific management: the use of reliable measures for student learning, the setting up of quantifiable and clear goals for each course, and the aptitude tests for the ability determination of every pupil. The tension concerning the scientific approach of teaching had continued in the 1930s until the Great Depression (Johnston, 2001).

The Era of Clinical Supervision

The literature begins to concentrate on the teachers as the persons during the period after World War II orienting on their emotional needs and the development of unique skills. The significance of classroom observations was also accepted. Therefore, effective teaching was recognized as the main aim of education.

Clinical supervision was the innovation in the education field. It was developed in the late 1950s and spread extremely quickly. Goldhammer established the five phases of clinical supervision that were designed to attract supervisors and teachers in a reflective dialogue (Cogan, 1973).

The supervisory process was regarded as an essential aspect of continuous enhancement in instruction: “In this sense, the teacher involved in clinical supervision must be perceived as a practitioner fulfilling one of the first requirements of a professional - maintaining and developing his competence. He must not be treated as a person being rescued from ineptitude, saved from incompetence, or supported in his stumbling. He must perceive himself to be engaged in the supervisory processes as a professional who continues his education and enlarges his competences”(Cogan, 1973, p. 21). The interaction of student and teacher was viewed as the complete practice of teaching. The five phases of clinical supervision were proposed to be the means for the disclosure of efficient educational practice. As a consequence, this model became the framework for the evaluation of educators.

The Hunter’s seven-step model of lesson design also contributed to the teacher’s evaluation. Moreover, linking with clinical supervision, it became the requirement in many countries. Supervisors began to determine the effectiveness of lessons according to the model, as well as teachers conducted lessons from their perspective (Hunter, 1984).

The Era of Developmental/Reflective Models

Theorists and researchers began to formulate alternative viewpoints in response to the injunction application of clinical observation and teaching skills in the mid-1980s. Glatthorn clarified that the teacher as the professional should have some sense of control and input over development. In addition, various venues and opportunities for professional growth had to be given for educators on the base of their individual needs.

Glickman described the following necessary actions for the teaching process: action research, curriculum development, professional development, group development and direct assistance for teachers.  In general, this epoch provided the main arguments against the harsh application of teaching skills and clinical observation and laid the groundwork for the accent on teacher assessment.

The RAND group studied the types of evaluation practice at schools in the 1980s. The findings were concluded in the report Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices. It was noted that the evaluation and supervisory tactics were sometimes insufficiently specific for the purpose of educational development. As a result, it was established that the teacher evaluation system had to meet the social values of the school district, the conception of teaching, management style and the educational goals in order to succeed. It should have utility, which depends on the effective use of resourse. The quality of teacher evaluation can be improved by the instructor’s responsibility and their participation in the process (Wise et al., 1984).

The Danielson model of teacher evaluation was presented in the mid-1990s. It tries to observe the dynamic teaching process in the classroom in all its complexity. This model involves the four following areas: professional responsibilities, instruction, the classroom environment and planning together with preparation. In each of these areas, a number of components are named; further it articulates the necessary disposition, skills and knowledge for the demonstration of competence in the teaching space.

The division of teaching quality into the four levels of performance (distinguished, proficient, basic and unsatisfactory) is one of its powerful aspects. In general, the framework of Danielson is wide-ranging as it comprises all phases of teaching and can be used in many disciplines and at different levels. The level of specificity serves as the basis for the evaluation approach of that period (Danielson, 2007).

The Beginning of the 21st Century

The learning and teaching models of Robert Marzano and Charlotte Danielson remain prominent in defining teacher effectiveness for the 21st century. The book Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching of Danielson summaries the procedures and observations connecting with effective teaching as it was mentioned above. The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction is the teacher effectiveness model created by Manzano. 10 questions of his book signify a logical planning system for effective education. They include the formative, standard-based, effective and summative evaluation practices, which use the multiple measures of student learning. High expectations of learners, operational student-teacher relationships, effective management of the classroom, the engagement of students, student practice for deepen understanding, students’ interaction with new knowledge, and the establishment of learning objectives are other requests of assistance for the effective teaching (Marzano, 2007).

Though, the accent has shifted from educator behaviour to student attainment and from supervision to assessment since the early 2000s. For instance, the significance of student success as a measure in the evaluation process is mentioned in the book Linking Teacher Evaluation and Student Learning: “Given the clear and undeniable link that exists between teacher effectiveness and student learning, we support the use of student achievement information in teacher assessment. Student achievement can, and indeed should be, an important source of feedback on the effectiveness of schools, administrators, and teachers” (Tucker & Stronge, 2005, p. 102). Tutors have little motivation for developing into professionals if the success of students is not related to their evaluation.

Regularly, the current evaluation practice is heavily criticized by many scholars. In particular, teaching was described as a profession that put emphasis rather on formal authority than on efficiency and student achievements. Consequently, researchers call for alterations in compensation and tenure.

The Ethical Implications of Using IT as an Evaluative Tool in the 21st Century

Ethical Framework in IT

At the outset, the term “computer ethics” was used in 1970s, but it was not spread on the education sector up to 1990s. It was a time when the curriculum programs were suggested for schools in order to conduct data processing. Ethics is a set of moral principles that controls behaviour and legalises the use of computers. With the increasing use of innovations in technology, ethical problem has arisen involving the controversial debate. Privacy, intellectual property rights and other issues are the subject of this discussion.

The security recommendations of the Computer Ethics Institute impact the use of information technologies (IT) these days. Security is the protection of hardware, software, networks and machines from alteration or destruction, unauthorized access containing the restricted access to networks and machines, and the encryption of information.

Any interference in the computer files of other people, as well as the use of stolen, unauthorized or harmful information, is prohibited by the recommended rules. In addition, the use of computer which belongs to another person without his/her permission and not paid software is also not allowed. As a final point, the institute laws forbid any attempt aimed at the appropriation of intellectual property of others. These ethical requirements help defend the privacy of students and teachers in the educational environment (Ackcay, 2008).

The Unethical Use of IT

Computer crime is one of the unlawful activities, which consists of sabotage, virus infection, online harassment, embezzlement, financial fraud and theft. Computer crimes can touch all educational doings that include the Internet for study. Hackers are mainly focused on the large companies, but the institutions of education must also invest in security measures.

Intellectual property takes account of the symbols, images, inventions, designs and names of the certain institute. IT allows institutions to copy or imitate ideas from others and use them as if they were theirs own thoughts. That is why universities must patent their innovations in order to prevent competitors from the duplication or imitation of the scientific products (Winston & Edelbach, 2012).

Piracy is the conscious or unconscious illegal copying of software, which violates the copyright treaties. There are arguments that individual piracy cannot be unethical since it results in the future software purchases and computer literacy. Nevertheless, the ethical dilemma can take place and lead to serious losses for software manufacturers, especially when it is done on a large scale. As a result, educational institutions have to protect their software (Poel & Royakkers, 2011).

Students, professors and other university staff take the responsibility of using IT resources only for proper educational activity. Above all, public library computers are designed for study. Ethical policy covers all IT resources such as television/video, cell phones, networks and computers.

Technology Legislation

A certain amount of ethical requirements were made to guide the use of information technologies in different sectors including education. The enhancement of data security processed by IT is the key law purpose. Mergendoller (2000) emphasizes that both the federal regulations and ethical codes affect the application of technology. Nevertheless, the laws are usually aimed at addressing the common issues related to Internet such as privacy, copyright and hacking, while ethical codes may include the additional specific rules developed in a particular institution.

For instance, the privacy law protects any individual from passing his/her private facts to other people. Though, universities and teachers can use personal information about their students required in the educational process. This law closely monitors in what way educational institutions carry out their financial online transactions, as well. It puts a number of disciplinary actions against the organizations, which were found in violation of the law (Ackcay, 2008).

On the subject of the spamming/hacking law, the admission files of several business schools containing Stanford University, Harvard University and Sloan University were under a hack attack in 2005. In that case, both Stanford and Sloan university administrations decided to reject all applicants, who had access to their confidential information, except the students of Stanford University. Their decisions drew contentious debate among people, who condemned their choice as the violation of students’ rights. This situation demonstrates that such institutions can perform actions contrary to the law adapting it to the case.

There are a number of legislative acts that influence the ethical implication of data security in IT. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act is one of those, which were intended to assist in the defence of students’ educational confidentiality.

In the education sector, the copyright and property regulation continues to cause debate about the real owners of education materials posted on the Internet. It also has an impact on the activity of universities. For instance, some professors tend to insist that online materials must be regarded as the personal ownership instead of the university property. On the other hand, the majority of universities claim that any information kept in their database should be treated as the university copyright.

In the same way, netiquette laws restrict the use of chat in sending the pictures and messages, which are considered to be offensive to the other person. Furthermore, the laws on vandalism make the users accountable for both the networks and computers. The law on access of information also limits the using of Internet for organizations. Therefore, schools use the filtering systems as the means of protecting their students from the inappropriate websites which are connected with violence, pornography or have a gambling context. There are programs with features designed for the purpose of preventing pupils from the accidental disclosure of information like their name, age, phone number and school name (Venkataiah, 2008).

Lastly, there are laws on the accuracy and trustworthiness of information that influence the use of IT as an evaluative tool. It is expected that the guarantee of posting only true and accurate information online will limit any false material in the future. Otherwise, the distortion of information can lead to fatal confusion, especially in the legal and medical issues.

Ethical Codes in the Institutions of Education

The electronic gadgets such as the cellular phones, iPods, MP3-players and laptops which are at the disposal of students increase with the development of technology. As it is noted by many teachers, about 80% of students pay much attention to these devices during the class time that can negatively influence their academic achievements. For example, some use their cellular phones in order to play favourite electronic games or send messages to their classmates. It happens rather often, especially when teacher cannot keep a vigilant eye on all students because of the large size of class.

The digital culture is prevalent among students as the majorities of them rely on these devices for the purpose of recording, storage and making teaching notes. Thus, ethical codes are necessary in educational institutions. They can put the growing abuse of electronic devices under control. Moreover, class teachers have to develop rules, which ban the irresponsible use of electronics in classrooms. Parents should be asked not to call their children during the limited period – during the educational process (Byron, 2000).

Therefore, the written ethical codes classify what the institute considers to be wrong or right in the list of laws, procedures and regulations. They remind students about the evident preventions. The established code of ethics provides the specific ethical rules that must be used as a guide. In such a manner, it summarizes the core values, on which the work of the institution is founded. Teachers can turn to the literature on ethical decision making for additional guidance and the resolution of ethical problems.

The unspoken rules regarded as norms are even more significant guidelines than the written codes for the direction of students’ behaviour. They are often more effective than the formal set of regulations and procedures. Norms may encourage certain behaviour and usually have a positive effect on students of all ages (Winston & Edelbach, 2012).

The Implementation of Educational IT

In accordance with the research of Pew Research Centre, innovative technologies allow to organize more productive and stimulating learning process than earlier. They create strong curiosity about the subject of research and form the individual approach to the learning and teaching processes. Thus, educational programs become as popular among students as social networks. Besides, students will improve the writing and communication skills while using them.

Though, not all scholars agree on the need of IT implementation in the teaching process. Some state that the following innovations can lead to the increasing violence among learners. In addition, the social networks as the imaginary world negatively influence students. That is why the issue of IT use in the educational process is relevant and requires the careful analysis.

In general, the success of IT implementation in the educational environment depends on the ability of teachers to use the innovations appropriately for the student’s benefits. Web designs, modelling, hyperlinks, multimedia, data visualizations, geolocation, interactive 2-D and 3-D graphics and animation and socio-oriented features are these applications of IT and innovations (National Research Council, 2003).

The experience of students will expand to a great extent with the application of IT. The lessons with the IT train and activate the observation, memory and intelligence of students, force them to have another look at the proposed information. Students will enhance their skills on new technologies in order to meet the future challenges. The development of IT changes the face of education systems by encouraging students to take part in the learning process and improve new learning skills. Though, teachers must review all proposed videos, websites and other digital content before their use in the class. Hence, it is ensured that IT meets the needs of a student and school course of action.  In such a manner, IT can be applied as the positive evaluative tool in the 21st century.

Kaminski's Theory of Observing Participation and Its Effectiveness in the Educational Environment

The Observation Method

The observation of participants is a method of gathering information in the qualitative research that can be widely used in many branches of knowledge. Kaminski (2004) illustrates this technique in his book Games Prisoners Play. The observation of participation is similar to everyday interactions including conversation to open participants for the situation, in which they are involved. Its purpose is a “thick description” of social contact in the natural conditions.

Game theory becomes the clue to prison subculture. Firstly, prison seemed to be the irrational world of arbitrary behaviour codes and unpredictable violence. However, the process of making strategic decisions appeared to be a necessary thing. It must be learned for survival. It is shown that poor decision can lead to social isolation, beatings and rape, while a wise step may shorten a sentence. The author notes that confusion in the interpretation of behaviour in prison arises from a misunderstanding of what motivates inmates. In fact, they are driven rather by rational and predictable calculations than abnormal emotions.

During the course of the book, Kaminski determines the essential points by drawing the theoretical model of elementary game. He brought the rational choice theory to the prison world no matter through formal or informal way. Observation experiment was worth undertaking.

The Kaminski's theory of observing participation is the qualitative research in social science. Therefore, it can be applied to the education sector in order to study methodology. The theory of Kaminski provides a deep insight in human behaviour and the reasons that influence it. It investigates the different aspects of actions. In other words, it explores in what way and for what purpose decisions are made. Thus, the need for focused and small samples instead of large and random models is obvious. As it is observed in the Kaminski's book, qualitative research relies on the three next data collection methods: social artefact content analysis, interview and participant observation (Kaminski, 2004).

In essence, the theory uses the methods of content analysis at the separate levels. Sometimes, qualitative research methods are used in conjunction with quantitative research approaches in order to gain a deeper understanding of the social phenomena and reasons or help generate questions for the further research.

The study shows that observation is the main part of the evaluation, whether it is conducted in school or not educational institution. Data-driven evaluations are gaining reliability and acceptance in the research process. A mixture of data analysis and observation is the next logical step in this process. This mixture deserves a thoughtful consideration in the search for the best evaluation technique.

In the educational process, observation is needed to guarantee that there is the understanding of teaching. This means that teacher conducts the lesson using accepted methods of pedagogy. The information element offers a quantifiable method of determining student learning and teacher input. Their combination will incorporate new available statistics and maintain the noticeable features of the old system.

Teaching includes a range of personal qualities, abilities and knowledge in a dynamic interaction despite the definition of teacher effectiveness. Classroom evaluation is the most common method. One study demonstrates that almost 100% of public schools use the observations of schoolrooms as the primary data source for teacher assessment. Feedback and observation are two parts of the most common evaluation method. According to this system, teachers are observed and their lessons are rated according to teaching technique and design. Coaching and mentoring as well as peer-to peer support programs also allow the educational community to provide observations.

The Peer Support Program

The Peer Support program puts emphasis on self-esteem, self-confidence and the development of communication skills. Most of all, it can bring advantage to secondary and primary students. Good interaction between all segments of the school community including parents/caregivers, teachers, students and their peers, older and younger schoolchildren is the key task for the educational environment.

The program typically contains a “buddy program”. It means that younger children receive support in studying from older students. Improved self-esteem and self-awareness can assist in resistance against the harmful peer group pressure.

Peer facilitation is the conflict resolution tactic that is available to graduate school as the part of peer support programs. Trained students lead others through the organized procedure of peer meditation for resolving the disagreement. It is vital in reducing vandalism, truancy and violence at school as the early intervention strategy. As the long-term program, peer mediation should be included in the ethos of the school instead of “a quick fix” (Lu & Liu, 2008).

All graduate schools look for empowerment of pupils by teaching them the necessary skills for conflict resolution. This enhances the relations and assumes that the conflict can be positive and productive. Self-discipline, self-esteem and self-regulation are fostered by the self-empowering aspect of mediation as the important instrument in the student’s life. It promotes the development of students, who are the self-regulating and self-governing members of the school and society, as well.

Mentoring and Coaching

Coaching and mentoring appear in a variety of types comprising peer mentor, mentoring and coaching strategies. Some local authorities have established their own coaching and mentoring approaches and strategies. Others have developed programmes for the purpose of supporting head teachers through mentoring. Thus, they are endorsing both not accredited and credited courses for universities concentrating on coaching and/or mentoring.

 In its turn, the reflection encouraged by effective coaching and mentoring methods stimulate the cooperative culture of learning in the institute. It is particularly beneficial for schools, because it can relieve some professional isolation. Coaching and mentoring actions may be more powerful, when they are a part of wider professional development programme or/and fit the broader context of the institution. CPD programme and the context of school should be taken into consideration in the development of coaching and/or mentoring tactics within their settings.

Strategic planning and organisational support must also be a main concern for school leaders in the development of coaching and mentoring activities. Training leaders in coaching and mentoring, providing the basis for their implementation, promoting collaborative and learning culture are of importance for the efficiency of coaching and mentoring schemes in schools (Theall & Franklin, 1990).

Coaching and mentoring activities associated with classroom practice should be inspiring for teachers as the new professional standards.  Nowadays, coaching and mentoring are the key aspects of on-going performance management and professional development. They are also the expected parts of teacher’s knowledge and skills.

Unresolved Issues and Questions

Numerous changes in evaluation methods and government policy have significantly transformed the background for teacher evaluation practice during the last decades. The emergence of teacher accountability is the central shift in the public arena. This means that the increasing urgency is increasing. It measures the performance and quality of teachers in terms of students’ attainments.

This matter dominates the discourse about the up-to-date assessment of teacher. It is still substantial and a little alarming issue of concern as there is a little agreement in what way to meet the demands caused by the relations between teacher effectiveness and the success rate of students. The majority of efforts to link individual teacher performance with student achievement failed in the past because of some disadvantages. First of all, the measures that were used to represent the achievements of students are not appropriate for the philosophy of instruction and progressive practice in present education. The measurement also does not contain a time variable for the purpose of observing the effect of student learning, as well as time spent by teacher. Thus, it is unreliable. Finally, the training setting as a performance variable is not taken into consideration by the measurement (Dede, 2008).

The relationship between student’s achievement and teacher’s performance is thus far cogent as a main part of teacher assessment and hard for implementation that it has never been thoroughly realized, in fact. Though, the valid and credible link is crucial for the vitality and health of education. The integrity and quality of established and adopted methods for the evaluation of student progress are the fundamental issues of the course.

The topic of ethics in IT will continue to attract disputes with the expected increase of new technologies. There is the need for education on the basic use of these technologies even with the existence of several laws in this branch of knowledge. It will make students aware of the different circumstances in order not to be exposed to such illegal actions as losing privacy and hacking (Educational Technology Insight, 2011).

Rujakumar (2006) highlights that the involvement of educational technology in the learning process has enhanced the teaching-learning processes and improved the general quality of learning. It helps solve the demands of students by creating equal learning opportunities in the class.

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The educational technology allowed to organise the appropriate training classes, improve curricula, develope the flexible educational system, and reduce both the learning and teaching materials. In their turn, these factors increased the reliability and quality of education. In achieving the peak of education and initiating the class structure, the importance of educational technology is emphasised. In addition, IT enhances the ability of students to gain excessive knowledge (Rujakumar, 2006).

For that reason, it is obvious that the majority of teachers suppose the communication and information technologies to be the teaching assistance or tool. However, IT status was upgraded with the increasing possibilities of technology to that of the learning environment with a variety of opportunities to support and reinforce learning in the majority of pupils. Noteworthy and abundant Internet resources, sophisticated computer graphics, networking communities, fast speed access, virtual veracity and other constant advances in information and communication technologies will continue to change the learning environment and provide the different ways of learning for students. The shift towards more qualitative research methods is possible to offer in-depth learning-teaching processes in the technological environment. This indicates that investigation must focus on understanding the way, reason, time and place of learning in the equally influential environment enriched with technology. In accordance with Johnston (2001), it is the future for learning and teaching in educational institutions.

Nevertheless, as there are some ethical dilemmas and negative impacts of IT, several shortcomings of the observational process within the educational system exist, as well. Observations do not take into account the differences in teaching. As an alternative, observers have a tendency to interpret the same practice in educators of different subjects. Key observations compel teachers to limit their activities to established criteria of evaluation. As a reason, the National Center for Education Statistics pointed out a number of criticisms: the lack of experience in specialized areas, particularly at the secondary level; role conflict for the principal; the apathy and resistance of teachers; the limited competence of the principal. In some regions, tenured teachers need only one observation, while new educators must be observed four times. Lu & Liu (2008) mention that such a tactic is not related to students’ success.

Data-driven assessment, which is based on student achievement, is one of the assessment methods. At this time, it becomes more common approach. Afterwards, the value-added accountability system is likely to become more shared. The reason is that both the school and state districts began to explore in what way to create the data-driven systems for increasing performance. They also began to estimate the ineffectiveness of existing assessment systems.

Criticism of the tests of student attainment

First of all, it is difficult to assess the contribution of teachers to student’s learning. Secondly, standardized tests inspect the results of scholars, who start at different levels. One came to conclusion that any consistent testing program would narrow the space of teacher assessment. It was also found that previous efforts in the test data use were not possible due to the lack of computing power and high cost. In other words, there was no method to distinguish the educational effects of external factors. This equation can be altered with the advent of sophisticated software and powerful computers.

The job of teachers includes much more than raising test. Sometimes, the assessment strategies borrowed from companies and universities are called 360-degree feedback. They recognize the need to consider the bigger picture. Information gathering from anyone with knowledge of teacher performance is the goal of this all-inclusive method. Data collects in order to identify the areas for improvement and create a complete picture of teacher practice. Evaluation decisions are made on the multiple data sources containing teacher participation in committees, parent reports, teacher-developed tests and curricula, observation notes, student achievement, surveys and questionnaires.

Present models tend to assign responsibility on administrators in order to respond to data and interpret facts. Of course, there are risks. The strategy asks pupils to evaluate their tutors. It collects feedbacks from people, who have only a secondary teacher knowledge practice, such as fellow teachers and parents. However, various kinds of information collected from dissimilar points of view encourage the clear and full picture of the professional teacher life.

There is a broad discussion of what is supposed to be good practice. Educators have to demonstrate that they can perform certain pre-determined competence, such as classroom management and the presentation of lesson. Thus, the studies have shown that observation is the significant tool of teacher evaluation. Many researchers call for a comprehensive approach that includes observation used with some other assessment tools. The observation of participants takes commitment and time. It gives the chance to create a new understanding and construct innovative theories. However, a variety of issues – interpretation, ethics and authority – comes with participant observation.

The use of peer review is the illustration of changing position to teaching as a profession. Teacher evaluation will evolve and increase as the concept learning and grow together with development of the profession. Computer technologies just begin to offer in what manner the new methods of forming and final assessment may transform the landscape. Possibly, the most significant is that reformers oppose the realities of life in institutes. Therefore, public knowledge of teacher role and profession increases. More and more people discover how educators are vital for the whole society as well as how demanding and hard teaching can be. In the future, teacher evaluators will show a much higher level of skills and knowledge than their forerunners making the profession of coacher improved.

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