The Macedonian king, Alexander III (356-323 BC), popularly known as Alexander The Great, was believed to be the greatest military leader of all time. Born in BC 356 as the son of Philip II of Macedonian kingdom, Alexander got the opportunity to get trained under one of the greatest philosopher, Aristotle Philip II was succeeded in bringing most of the neighboring city-states to the mainland of Greece using military and diplomatic means. But Alexander, when he was grown up, tried to conquer the whole world and made every effort to bring all countries under the Greek leadership. He has conducted many battles like The battle of Granicus, The battle of Issus, The siege of Tyre, Battle of Gaugamela etc which made him the greatest military leader of all time.
The battle of Granicus
In the last days of May or the first days of June 334, Alexander’s army clashed with a Persian army on the boards of the river Granicus. The Persian king Darius III was not present; the Macedonians and Greeks had to fight against the armies recruited from the satrapies of Asia Minor.
The battle of Granicus was the first of the three major battles conducted by Alexander with the Persian Empire. The battle took place on the road at the crossing of the Granicus River. It is believed that the Macedonian casualties were around 300 to 400 whereas that of the person side was in between 1000 to 3000. 18000 to 43000 Macedonians and 23000 to 50000 Persians took part in this battle.This battle presented Alexander with the first major victory over the Persian Empire.
The battle of Issus
The Battle of Issus is believed to be occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC between Alexander of Macedonia and Darius III of Persia. This was the second great battle for supremacy in Asia between Alexander and Persian kings. This war occurred few years after the the battle of Granicus. The battle of Issus was not fought at Issus; it was fought on the Pinarus River on the south-eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It was between Alexander and Darius, the Persian general. The Persians had 600,000 men whereas Alexander had only 75,000. But Alexander held back a reserve force for emergency situations which was a new war strategy to the world. Even though in all 124,950 soldiers were died during the battle (110,000 Persians 7 450 Macedonians) the battle was won by Alexander and the Macedonians.
The Siege of Tyre
The Siege of Tyre was a coastal base on the Mediterranean Sea, captured by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians. Alexander failed to capture the city through conventional means as the city was an island and had walls right up to the sea. So Alexander used an innovative war strategy and blockaded and besieged Tyre for seven months. Alexander was furious to see the resistance and the loss of life of his military personnel and he destroyed half of the city. Finally the city surrendered and Alexander gave pardon to the King and the family.
Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela took place in 331 BC between Alexander and Darius III of Persia. This battle is also called the Battle of Arbela, resulted in a massive victory to Macedonians. “His victory at the battle of Gaugamela on the Persian plains was a decisive conquest that insured the defeat of his Persian rival King Darius III”.
Alexander engaged in different wars with the Persian kings which made him one of the greatest military leaders of all time.