1. Artist: Unknown. Location: Salisbury Plain, Southern England. Year: 2000 BCE. Even in historical books of Gardner, Keleiner, and others the artist of the famous work remains unknown. However, during the Middle Ages many believed that the mysterious structures were made by Merlin, the magician from the legend about the King Arthur (Gardner, Kleiner, & Mamiya, 2006).

2. Artist: Senemut. Location: Valley basin of Deir el-Bahari, Egypt. Year: 2050 BCE. Senemut is said to be the “Steward of the God’s Wife (Hatshepsut)” and architect.

3. Artist: Euphronios. Location: Ancient Greece. Ioday in can be found in National Etruscan Museum, Rome. Year: 515 BCE. Euphronios was an Ancient Greek vase potter and a painter. He was one of the most important artists of the so-called technique “red-figure”.

4. Artist: Unknown. Location: Ancient Greece; Today it is in Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Year: 600-580 BCE. Since there is a lot of Greek Kouros that were created throughout the history, there are many other artists as well.  

5. Artist: Ictinus and Callicrates. Location: Acropolis, Athens, Greece. Year: 448-432 BCE. Many identify Ictinus as an architect of the Temple of Apollo in Bassae and Telesterion near Eleusis. Callicrates is identified with Ictinus as two creators of the Acropolis.

6. Artist: Giovanni Paolo Panini. Location: Rome. Year: 1734. Panini is widely known for his vistas of Rome and its famous antiquities.

7. Artist: Unknown. Location: France. Year: 1145-1170. Due to damages caused by a war or fire in Chartes, parts of the cathedral were rebuilt by many designers. The work, of course, was initiated by the King and the Queen.

8. Artist: Giotto di Bondone. Location: Veneto, Italy. Year: 1305. Giotto is one of the most famous Italian architects and painters. He is also regarded as the greatest artist of the Italian Renaissance period. 

 9. Artist: Leonardo da Vinci. Location: Musée du Louvre, Paris. Year: 1503-0506. Leonardo had not actually constructed any building, but he was renowned during his life as an architect and a sculptor (Gardner, Kleiner, & Mamiya, 2006).

10. Artist: Michelangelo Buonarroti. Location: Vincoli, Rome. Year: 1508-1512. Although he was an architect, a sculptor, a poet, an engineer, and a painter, Michelangelo is mostly famous as a sculptor and painter.

11. Artist: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Location: Vatican, Rome, Italy. Year: 1600-1601. Caravaggio is a painter whose works portrays realistic observation of human conditions, both physical and emotional.

12. Artist: Artemisia Gentileschi. Location: Italy. Year: 1625. Artemisia is an Italian Baroque painter famous for being one of the first women painters.

13. Artist: Unknown. Location: Shaanxi, China. Year: 210 BCE. 14. Artist: Sha Jahan. Location: Agra, India: Year: 1632-1648. Emperor Sha Jahan, along with other builders, constructed Taj Mahal in memory of his third wife Mumtaz Mahal.

15. Artist: Yombe people. Location: Congo, Chiloango River Region. Year: 19th Century.

16. Artist: Rosa Bonheur. Location: Paris, France. Year: 1853-1855. Rosa Bonheur created “The Horse Fair” which was demonstrated at the Salon in 1853. After this exposition she gained the reputation as an artist.

17. Artist: Édouard Manet. Location: Paris, France. Year: 1862-1863. Manet is considered to be one of the most famous artists of the 19th century who approached modern-life matters.

18. Artist: Pablo Picasso. Location: Barcelona, Spain.Year: 1907. Pablo was widely known as a Spanish stage designer, painter, and sculptor. 

19. Artist: Judy Chicago. Location: Brooklyn, America. Year: 1979. Judy was a young artist in Los Angeles, and was one of the most known female artists in the history of art.

 20. Artist: Kiki Smith. Location: New York, America. Year: 1995. Kiki is a German painter who lived in New York since 1976 and the gained his reputation.

Art Appreciation (AR100)

1. Paleolithic (750,000 BC), Neolithic (10,000 BC), Sumerian (4500 BC), Archaic Greek (800 BC), Roman (27 BC), Byzantine (1500), Fauvism (1905), Cubism (1907), Abstract Expressionism (1946), Post Modernism (1950s).

2. Parthenon: Greek Culture; Doric style. Michelangelo: Italian culture; Baroque style. Caravaggio: Italian culture; Baroque style. Picasso: “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”; Cubism style.

 3. Frida Kahlo de Rivera is a Mexican painter born in 1907 and died in 1954. Her paintings were used to treat women because of the themes they portray such as: women, pain, death and joie de vivre (“enjoyment in life”).

4. Baronci Altarpiece. 5. Artist:  Édouard Manet. Date: 1862-1863. Title: “Le déjeuner sur l’herbe” (“The Luncheon on the Grass”). Artist: Pablo Picasso. Date: 1907. Title: “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” (“The Young Ladies of Avignon”).

6. 1. It increases the sense of identity. Artists and sculptures come from different cultures. Art is the way of identifying these cultures.

2. It builds community pride and honor. As painters come from different countries, their artwork does not merely identify different cultures, but it also brings honor and fame to their cultures and the countries.

3. It improves cultural image and status. The beauty and quality of art directly portrays the artists’ view on their own culture. Especially in terms of religious beliefs, art is used to portray how much a particular culture regards its beliefs.

4. Art is one way of educating the youth. Beauty and creativity are promoted by art. That is why through art  young people have the possibility to preserve and develop their cultures.

5. Art creates cultural networks. Any public can see artworks of different artist from different cultures. Thus, it establishes connection between people.

7. Paul Gauguin is a French Post-Impressionist artist who, unfortunately, was not appreciated enough until today. One of his works is the “Portrait of Madame Gauguin” paintedin 1880-1881.

8. Paul Jackson Pollock is well known for his style “drip painting”. Two of his works are “Male and Female” painted in 1942 and “Eyes in the Heat” created in 1946.

 9. Surrealism is a cultural movement of artist and writers during the 20th Century. The artist and writers of this movement used fantastic pictures and incongruous appositions in order to portray unconscious thoughts and dreams. The actual leader of this trend was André Breton.

10. Very observant of everything connected with the environment; philosophical in terms of religious art styles; temperamental, patient about creating a good art work; dreamy or imaginative in order to create distinctive work; perfectionist in order to do his/her best.

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