China, located in East Asia on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean is one of the largest countries industrializing at a very high rate. Its size is about 9.6 million sq km this being the third largest country in the world after Russia and Canada. It is the most populous country in the world with about 1.26 billion people by the end of 1999 census (Lum, 2006). This makes up about 22% of the worlds total population having a density of 130 people per sq km. amongst the population 50.8% are male and 49.2 female with the majority between ages 15 and 64 years old making up 67.6% of the country’s population. It economical and other sectors are doing so well making it one of the fastest growing economical state in the world (Li Fan, 1987).
With all these, there are groupings and differentiation of people in terms of different groups based on the different aspects of life such as the social groups, economical and political groups as well. This has drawn a lot of interest to many scholars and to the writer of this paper. This paper therefore focuses on the different groups available in China, their effects in the economical, social, or political arena. It then addresses how the different types of groups, with specific examples have advanced their interests and the policy measures taken to respond to such efforts (Li Fan, 1987).
Social Groups, their interests and Policies applied in order to maintain peaceful and harmonious coexistence
The high population in China has resulted into a large number of social organizations or groups in China which have different interests in the spirit of pursuant to the maintaining the Constitution and the laws of the China Republic. These groups distributed all over the Republic stretching from urban areas to rural areas press for different views upon the political class of the Chinese Republic (King, 1984). The groups include the working or trade unions that try to unite workers as well as fight for the rights of the workers through the demonstrations and negotiations. Some groups address specific genders, ages of views for instance there are groups of women, youth, or even those that want to enter into the political world.
Examples of such groups include all-china women federation, all-china youth federation, all-china federation of trade unions, all-china federation of industry and finance, Chinese people association for friendship with foreign countries and literary and art circles (Lum, 2006). Other groups include the workers, religious believers, private entrepreneurs, women, and minority nationalities. These are broadly defined groups. Your paper is likely to be more interesting and tractable if you focus it somewhat more narrowly- for example, on Catholics, Uighurs, or migrant workers.
In order to achieve a better economic development and progress, broad social participation and creative social activities of the Chinese citizens having different basic motives and goals are very essential. Many economists measure the degree of economic viability and prosperity in terms of the length or extent of involvement of the various organizational groups within the economy. A society’s participation and creativity is very important in the economic prosperity and growth no matter the type of involvement whether economic or non-economical (Li Fan, 1987). Whether economical or non-economical interest, there is a need to protect each citizen’s views to enhance peaceful coexistence within the society and within the Republic of China as a whole.
Interests are mechanisms through which people are connected socially to engage in productive activities whether positive or negative as long as it has an effect of influence in the production process and consequently the economic growth of the country. The Chinese government has engaged in building of social centers as a way of appreciating different talents, culture, and interests of its people. Through these social centers, people of different caliber assemble to display their interests, talents, and cultures while others come to as spectators. In such facilities, people interact whether through participation or watching the events as they unfold (Lum, 2006). This interaction is a healthy one that promotes peaceful coexistence amongst the members of a community, society, and the nation at large.
The government uses some groups to enhance political, social, and economical harmonious living within the community uses some groups. These groups are given the imperial bureaucracy by the government and an ideological control over a given vast of an empire. Through the group, the power given to it by the government will assist it in performing the functions of putting people together for the safety and peaceful coexistence within the society (King, 1984). They will also be in charge of an empire by promoting its economic activities thereby ensuring that all the interests of the members within the group are achieved. There is nothing as fulfilling as knowing that a person’s interests is being fulfilled somewhere in a better way. This brings a lot of satisfaction amongst the community members hence achieving the desired level of peace within the living environment and system (King, 1984).
Negative influence of the Chinese groups
Contrary to the positive side of the social groups, the Chinese groups had negative influence on the peace and harmony that existed in the mainland. There were two groups of people; elites and the mass. The former controlled much of the political and economical aspects of the country while the later largely provided labor to the industries developed in the mainland. The elites had minimal support, as the mass were the majority in the state (King, 1984). The mass therefore felt that they were not worthy to hold positions in the government to control the political and economic aspects of the state. This caused a lot of wrangles between the two groups of people consequently leading to the mass organizations and actions that infringed the peaceful and serenity environment experienced before.
This awakened the Mao in a bid to work hard and restore the peaceful and serenity environment that existed before. They were forced to act immediately to prevent the warring communities, demonstrations, and mass actions. Other groups protested over what they termed as exploitations (Whyte, 1974). On the forefront of these group demonstrations were the farmers who fought for what was rightfully theirs as employment rate declined with increased fertilizer prices and reduced harvesting taken by the government at low prices leading to losses. Workers were never left behind in the demonstrations. The state owned enterprises were badly hit by these demonstrations though most political analysts believed that politics was the driving force behind these demonstrations (Lum, 2006).
Workers in the special economic zones also demonstrated largely causing the government to be angry and act as it was composed of majorly the elites who cared less of the interests of the mass. The other group was the homeowners who also engaged in the mass demonstration process. The government has tried to address this social unrest to restore peace and harmony in the mainland. They have however agreed that most of the grievances are legitimate (Whyte, 1974). Consequently, the government in some few occasions has been forced to rectify the abnormalities existing in some of polices that guide the mass who resort to mass action in an effort to fight for their rights. Some of these policies modified have violated the rights of the citizens while others have loop wholes where the local officials take advantage to exploit the citizens.
The post-Mao leaders use somewhat the same approach used by the earlier Mao in ensuring that the members of the groups do not misuse the groups’ interests to cause chaos within the society (Lum, 2006). The then Mao was willing to respect the basic institutional interests, a move that brought a lot of happiness within the society. They tolerated some behaviors to the extent that the behaviors never interfered with the group’s basic institutional interests. This helped in curbing the ideologies, policies, and power interests of the small groups that were extremely radical. They used the divide and rule where the Mao gave them the chance to display their interest and later on suppressed by the Army (Lum, 2006).
Another problem that brought a lot of entanglement between the Chinese government was the mass organization, which were exclusively concerned with narrow groups and more in particular the power interests. They used the ideologies and policy to advance their political ambitions causing a lot of chaos within the mainland. The mass organizations became too egocentric when they stop minding about other people’s affairs and stability but rather holding on to different ideologies and policies in so far as they coincided with their power interests. This gave Mao a lot of headache and had to figure out a way in which these group euphoria could come to an end and restore peace, stability, and harmonious existence between the members of the state beginning from the small community units (Whyte, 1974).
Most of the radical mass organizations were drawn from underprivileged social groups with the majority of the conservatives coming from better-off social groups, which indeed was a threatening factor to most of the Mao. They were force to act using Army to disperse the angry mass organizations. The radical-conservative cleavage was seen much on the mass than the elite because the former pushed for their own political interests through their own ideologies to extremes without any consideration of the bigger and broader ramification and the effects of their actions to the society. This threatened the peace of the society and the mainland forcing the Mao to act accordingly to restore the peace, stability, international standards, and harmonious existence to enhance the economic development of a nation (Whyte, 1974).
The contemporary Mao through its struggles has tried to address the social unrest issue. However, it lies upon the government to determine which actions are acceptable no matter how the grievance is very serious. They prove whether it is national and socially acceptable to hold mass demonstrations or strikes. This is due to the inadequacy of the human rights institutions (Lum, 2006). In addition, the government has ceded the political power to social groups and to a further extent promoted judicial independence in order to solve conflicts. They have tolerated many small demonstrations as the power to decide which actions are acceptable solely lies in the government (King, 1984).
Moreover, the government in 2005 promised to effect certain reforms that are very critical in solving the rural unrest through better management of land use, making the legal system of the country stronger to enhance justice amongst any warring nations and it vowed to protect farmers’ land in order to prevent the unrest caused by the farmers. The government also promised to increase the part of government spending on the social activities including education and health to ensure every citizen gets the necessary social amenities. Through its promise, the national tax levied on the farmers will be scraped off. In achieving all these, there will be resistance from other groups of people like the local officials (Lum, 2006).
All in all the fulfillment of these promises to the Chinese people will be a great deal to restore peace and harmony in the society. Serenity and harmony are very important factors in the attainment of the nation’s economic growth, objective, and prosperity.