A metaphor is a figure of speech that conveys vivid ideas or images by implying comparisons between two unrelated things. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a metaphor is “a figure of speech in which a name or descriptive word or phrase is transferred to an object or action different from, but analogous to, that to which it is literally applicable”(2012).

Some examples of metaphors are-

Person : Son

Metaphors : a whirlwind, a bundle of energy, an excited electron, a busy bee, has ants in his pants.

Person : Father

Metaphor : an island in a stormy sea, the wind beneath my wings, a guiding light, an anchor, has a heart of gold.

Subject: Time

Metaphor : a tireless traveler, an infinite river, a promise of change, a thief,  a link to the past, a doorway to the future, a great healer.

Subject: Winter

Metaphor: touched everything with its icy fingers, a cruel and hardened killer, a silent invader which conquers all, covers everything in a white shroud.

Subject: Love

Metaphor: the essence of life, a rollercoaster ride, an adventure, a delicate flower, floating on clouds, a burning desire.

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Natural/Mental Orders

Type of Organization: Natural Order: Chronological

Example: A butterfly lays an egg, the egg hatches and a larva comes out. The larva feeds on leaves and grows in size. The larva then attaches itself to a branch, weaves a chrysalis around it and metamorphoses into a pupa. Inside the chrysalis, the pupa transforms into a butterfly, the butterfly comes out of the chrysalis and flies free.

Type of Organization: Mental Order: Causal

Example: If you smell smoke, you look for the source of fire, if you hear a crash, you look around to see what fell down, if you see a bride, you expect to see the groom nearby.

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