China officially has a population of over 1.3 billion people and its estimated growth rate is 0.494%. It is very concerned with how its population grows and this has made it to attempt to implement a very strict population policy. In 2002, Chinas population and family planning law and policy were enacted. It only allows one child per family and only allows for a second child in rare circumstances, mostly in rural areas, though the guidelines override those minor communities with small populations. There is prohibition of use of physical coercion to make persons to give in to abortion or sterilization though in rare situations physical coercion is used. (Fand 2009)

Through out most areas, awareness on population planning is carried out. Crude birth rate and crude death rate has declined significantly.  Chinas population planning has been successful because of the fact that there are about 200 million fewer Chinese who were born as the program got implemented and became famous. Employing incentives exhortation and punishments made Chinas birth rate to eventually decline to 1.03% in 2000, which is extremely low rate for a country that was developing. But since the country is so large, the population of china increases by one million each month. Chinas fertility rate is 1.7 which implies that a woman on average can give birth to 1.7 children, however though; Chinas population is expected to continue growing over the next decades. This is because of immigration to china and a decrease in infant mortality and a reduction in death rate because national health is improving. There has been an increase in the age of marriage in china and improvement in female education, which have reduced fertility over time. Various forces have been employed to sustain the population of china and its demographic modernization pace has been impressive

According to the 2006 July census, Japan had a total population of 127 million which makes 2.0% of the total population of the world. Japan had witnessed an uphill trend during the twentieth century because Japan was growing industrially and economically but of late, population is starting to decline. Since the year 2005, the population growth of Japan started to decline with the death rate being higher than birth rate and the immigration rate almost becoming zero. This was not the first period Japan was witnessing decline in population, it had always been occurring that Japan had witnessed declining population rates. Japan crossed the 100 millionth mark in 1967 but after that, each year started recording a lower population growth and since 2005, the situation became acute. ( Peng 2000)

In 2005 the number of the elderly people in Japan was 26.82 million while the population of the young was 17.40 million and this indicated its falling birth rate and fertility rate. There is a high life expectancy and fertility rate. High life expectancy is the major reason why there is a decline in the population of japan. The main reason as to why there is a low infertility rate is because there is an increase in m marriage age and increase in the number of unmarried females. According to 2006 census, the current birth rate has come down to 9.37 births per 1000 people. Decline in death rates is attributed to improved standards of hygiene and cleanliness. The net migration rate was almost zero in 2006. Of Japan has a population growth rate of 0.02%. HIV AIDS prevalence in adults is below 0.1% but the major killer disease is cerebra vascular disease and cancer. However though, there is an increasing dependency rate which might put Japan in trouble in financial crisis. Estimates have shown that there is an increase in the aging population and decrease in the youth rate and it has been stipulated that japans population might fall to 100 millionth marks by 2050.