Fingerprints are the most effective method of criminal identification that has been used since 1900’s. It was only after the terrible murders by Jack the Ripper that fingerprints were considered to be worth studying. Sir Francis Galton in his book Fingerprints (1892) says that there are no two identical fingerprints in the world. The Bertillon system that functioned as the tool for forensic investigations failed, so fingerprints have been in use since that time.
The three crime scenes when fingerprints are used as a method of identification are: a murder case, robbery and kidnapping. The fingers have ridges which contain sweat pores and excrete perspiration, salts and oils that are left on a surface by touching it. This is the way fingerprints are created.
The analysis of bullets is a means of firearms identification. Bullets are collected from the crime scene for the comparison to a specific firearm. Firearms usage leaves impressed marks on the surface a firearm comes into contact with. This is the way to find out a caliber of the firearm that could have been used. The process of identification consists in comparing the patterns of rifling impressions left by bullets with firearms that match those patterns. The procedure involves the usage of the comparison microscopes which make the means of bullet comparison effective and accurate.
Forensic footwear evidence can be lifted from a tile floor surface with electrostatic lifting devices. The process involves an apparatus that produces electricity between the dust on the footwear and a foil-backed Mylar film put on the impression, so the print lifts with all the details preserved. Gel lifters are also an effective tool. These lifters offer a semi-sticky surface that is an excellent mechanism for picking up the impression. Gel lifters do not create static electrical impulses. The gel takes the dust impression and after this the footwear may be cleaned from dirt and dust and be a convincing evidence.