Opiate abuse is as old as the human history itself but its use in medicine that only recently been achieved that goes back to a century. Historically, the first known opiate if you sucker during the civil war period of United States history when of Opoids were widely prescribed to alleviate acute and chronic pain among soldiers were involved in battle for extended periods of time.
Back then, it was a kind of a necessity for soldiers after of their base hard work spending in the battlefield. Situation today stands drastically different than that of the civil war because today opium primarily is used as a means of medication in general and as a substance abuse in particular despite the fact it must not be used as the latter. The real benefit of opiates lies in their chemical composition which suits the body in chronic pains as well as other unbearable pain.
Today, opium is widely used as a medicine and most Physicians prescribe them in chronic pain conditions because there are such good pain relievers. It was not until the early 20th century when American Society viewed opium abuse as a form of addiction particularly among women and those soldiers who were more veterans and used opium to remove war memories.
Gradually, the opium to many forms of addiction and substance abuse among more popular forms is cocaine and heroin that are usually associated with drug related crimes particularly in those urban communities that are relatively poor, there are also used by political leaders as well as social stereotypes to name a few. Opium use in prescription medicine is usually restricted to a certain level but still Physicians strictly recommend a small quantity must be taken in an extreme form of chronic or other pain, otherwise, there’s always a race can of access medicine and use which can result in brain damage as well as habitual abuse in the longer run. A person who depends on Opoid for one reason or another, is characterized by symptoms of pain in case the Opoid use is abruptly discontinued against a general pattern. In such case, the patient usually suffers from psychological addiction that results in nausea, vomiting, depression and fatigue and other minor symptoms.
When ingested, a deep sensation is felt among the whole body and the mine feels relaxed and a soothing sense is prevailed over the user, coupled with an overwhelming sense of euphoria.
According to a recent research, there are 4 million people in United States alone, who are involved in substance abuse in one form or another, have used deployed at least once in their lives. The situation gets even worse when it comes down to Opiate abuse and an annual number of new Opiate users ranging from 121,264 people. Increased concern has been observed due to the increasing use of prescription Opioids that has cost increase social issues and regulatory, pain relief advocacy, and drug abuse. Despite a little hope gained due to radical medical procedures and advancements in technology along with easy administrative programs available to the masses, there is still plenty to be done to rectify the current situation of substance abuse in the country (Miller, 2010).
Oxocdone accounts for 1.9 million people in these cases where as more than 4.7% household residence and over than 12 years of age and use an Opioid medication one way or another. Person at heightened risk of Opoid experimentation include those who abuse it in the form of medicine or as C capsules of the poppy plan which is a raw form. Although raw opium contains numerous alkaloids, only a few of those such as morphine, 14, the bane, and have a marine, have clinical usability (Miller, 2010). Because morphine synthesis is difficult, the drug is a still primarily extracted from Opium order extracted from Poppy straw (Miller, 2010).
Researchers have been working day in and day out to reduce such cases all over the country that includes illicit use of medicine involving the danger of drug abuse. Such medicines, although available only on the recommendation of a qualified physician on prescription, still flaunt with a danger of being used by patients well after their recovery because of the soothing effects, along with a sense of relaxation that the user gets (Miller, 2010).
It is ironic to say the least because these medications have been found as great pain relievers particularly in chronic pains and other pain situations where the patient feels extreme discomfort and is unable to fulfill his daily routing properly. The use of these medicines has shown to stimulate a high degree of advantages during the treatments of various health conditions (Warner, 2010).
History of Opiate use in United States
In United States, Opiate has been used in medicine since early 19th century but unfortunately, its abuse commenced with its medical form. Since it is used for chronic, mental and other serious cases, there is always a hazard of excessive use which ends up in unnecessary use of the medicine. First such case surfaced in 1842 when a paranoia patient found guilty of excess dose of Oxicontin during his treatment. The patient died because of excessive abuse after two years. Methods for proper treatment have seen a consistent evolution but there is much to be desired. To resolve the concern of opium abuse, a global conference, the international opium conference, was held in 1909.
There are many ways that a medicine may contain opoids in varying forms one way or another because the inclusion of minute quantity of dextromethorphan is considered necessary in relieving various cough and cold pain conditions commonly and it is not solely available on a physician prescription most of the times as this medicine is too common and harmless to be qualified as a prescription medicine, but at the same time, there is a hazard of over dosage and patients have been using such medicines in huge quantity over the years, making their monitoring very difficult. Approximately, 45000 people become opium addict every year in United States alone and out of these, 5000 die due to opium abuse every year.
Etiology of Opiate drugs
In a recent study conducted during 2010 by Dr. Armstrong, laboratory tests found that opium based medicines usually do not contain a significant quantity of opium because a minor quantity is the necessary to relieve any pain or discomfort in most of the patient’s, however, in case a medicine is being taken on a regular basis without the field or need, in gradually shows adverse effects in the body and the brain cells begin to absorb the contents slowly but efficiently (Armstrong, 2010).
The study also found that a majority of such patients were under prescription medicine due to chronic or any other pain do not tangle in a habit of using this medicine on of prolong bases, however there’s a small quantity of patience who dual use the medicine without any necessity or need even after their recovered from their pains. Dr. Armstrong his stated that this attitude as more social and economic reasons rather than the patient, or the user will only going for access use age of the medicine (Armstrong, 2010).
Opiate edition causes the pathways inside the brain to be alerted which is evident by physical changes in the nurse cells when their brought on by the drug. The facts can be observed when neurons communicate with each other releasing neurotransmitters into the gap or synapses between the nerve cells. Dr. O’ Shea, during a study, found how the opium affects the human body, what is the cause behind its constant use by those who initially begin to use it as a medicine and that get used to eight such an extent that they find it extremely difficult to quit (Shea, 2010).
Physical and Pharmacological effects of Opiates
Primarily, opium base medicine as a function that suits the functionality of brain and neurons that have a VAT Network all over the human body. Says these neurons work like a wide network, receiving and sending signals from the brain and spinal card throughout the body and in case of pain, it has been observed that the function becomes more rapid than normal, making the patient feeling pain way more than he can take, because of this, the normal neuron functionality is increased many fold by the brain due to the situation that stress signals are being created and sent urgently while the brain declares it urgent (O’Shea, 2010). Also, applied medications have a tendency to affect the brain which is visible when the user perceives pleasure.
Prolonged and unnecessary use of Opiate drugs has shown devastating effect on brain and spinal cord (Frantz, 2010). Locus Coeruleus is the most affected part due to access it use of opiate base medicines and substance abuse. The necessary function that this part holds barred the monitoring of intestinal track as well as breathing activity, controlling the cough and sneeze, triggering the vomiting mechanism and others.
Clearly this area holds an important part in human body in terms of functionality and near on signal management. Scientists have found that locus is the most dearly a fact it part in terms of access if opium use age. The party and included in opium has a devastating effect on locus activity which, further creates a neuron signal management issue by reducing the general speed of sending and receiving signals through neurons to all parts of the body, thus, facilitating in the relax and soothing feeling of the person who is using opium to relax and relieve his pain. As soon as the opium is taken, its particles are carried through the blood throughout the body and begin to initiate the impact on desired parts particularly on the brain, spinal cord and neuron signal management. As easy as it is for the user to take opium when his body needs it, it is equally difficult to get rid from it because the mind, neurons, and spinal cord are used to it do to using it to extended periods of time, takes awhile to recover from such a stage and this period is extremely difficult for the abuser, substance user.
It is not a matter of decision, more on the will of the user when he decides to quit using opiates because the body is used to the soothing and pleasuring effect that it received from opiate abuse.
Administrating a patient is an extremely difficult task, which not only acquires extended time and resources, both the patient that goes through the painful procedure for many days by not using the required amount of opium that his body is used to, not even that but gradually this amount is decreased over many days to remove the habit of using opiate that the patient’s mind has adopted for a long time.
There are certain concerns about the patient during this time of rehabilitation and recovery because there is always a serious risk involved that a patient might collapse or even suffer drastic effects on his mind and body due to lack of required amount of opiate that he used for a long time. This dangerous process always involves the risk of patient’s life as well as the pain that patient goes through throughout this process is extremely painful and at times, unbearable (Knob, 2010).
Scientists such as Charles Grid, (2010) have determined that opiates create their alluring effects by holding on the specific areas of the brain cells, turn opiate receptors. With the help of Opiate receptor discovery, researchers have determined that Buprenorphine works like a treatment if already available. Studies have indicated that opiates are notorious and are addictive qualities and show signs of both physically as well as psychologically inductive. (Grid, 2011) Like other drugs, Opium is considered as a powerfully addictive drug which leaves deep impacts on human health and the longer run. It is unlikely that its user may be able to predict or even to control the extent to which he or she will continue the use of Opium. This is among the first signs of drug abuse when an individual seems to lose his will power to control the quantity as well as how long can he use it and when to quit (Grid, 2010).
Even if an addict quits using opiate, it is very likely that the habit be a relapse at some point of time, which has devastating results on the user’s health. Relapsing is a common thing in Opium drug rehabilitation process because the user finds it extremely difficult to quit the drug and there’s always a possibility of relapse with the worst part is that in case of a relapse, the consequences are like threatening. Studies have shown that the periods of abstinence or even exposure to accuse according to the drug use can trigger a tremendous craving and relaxes to the user (Grid, 2010).
In case of a repeated exposure of Opium, it has been observed that the brain in adapts while it becomes less sensitive and tolerant to natural reinforces and to the drug itself. Opium addiction causes the pathways inside the brain to be alerted which is evident by physical changes in the nurse cells when their brought on by the drug. The facts can be observed when neurons communicate with each other releasing neurotransmitters into the gap or synapses between the nerve cells. It has also been observed that Opium acts by attaching specific proteins called Opium transmitters which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal track. As per Vijay Kumar, (2010) As soon as these compounds are taking, their ties to a certain Opium receptors and the brain and spinal cord through which they can affect only change the way a person experiencing pain (Kumar, 2010).
There’s also believe that cocaine is less addictive because it lacks the physical withdrawal symptoms that are found in other drugs but this is yet to be proven right and still remains a theory. The trend of drug abuse has been the trend of multiple drug abuse or group abuse in the last year or so in which cocaine is used along with alcohol and other sedatives like prescription drugs or even heroin by combining in upper or downer manner. The use of other drug with cocaine is to reduce the side effects of the primary addiction which is a popular belief among drug abusers, although, this requires verification (Kumar, 2010).
For pregnant women were involved in opium abuse while the babies in the world, many problems surface that can cause and early delivery, severe harm to the fetus, trouble in paying attention, and regulation of general behaviors. Not only it affects the mother, but the facts on the fetus are even more depressing because children who are exposed to opium as drug during their early trimester of development and to have experience slower growth and a slower mental and physical development compared to children were never exposed to any drug abuse.
Historical aid has been observed that a major portion of black and other minorities in the suburban areas of United States have been involved in substance abuse particularly in the use of opium base medicines and other substances for a good part of 20th century. The situation was much worse 30 years ago but since it has recovered to a great deal because of the administration an extensive research that has been going on in the study of opium and it’s a facts on human body in case of access use and abuse, researchers have come to the conclusion that this situation is likely to get better in the coming 5 to 10 year span (Kumar, 2010).
The specific conditions and environment that in opium patient goes through because it is necessary to keep him isolated from the rest of the world for an extended period of time to facilitate the necessary treatment procedure that he’d require for many weeks or even months, depending on the amount of opium he has used, and the time period for which he has been an opium abuser (Kumar, 2010). Various treatment procedures have been devised by doctors, Physicians, researchers, and other experts in the field of neuroscience and the fact of substance abuse on human body that varies from patient to patient, case to case, and other necessary pair meters that are taken into the creation to devise a suitable treatment procedure for every patient.
Administering Opium patients
Dr. Kaplan, in his recent study on many patients that we’re going through the recovery process from opium abuse, found that majority of patients have to address various symptoms and adverse situations throughout their process to recovery. There were cases where patients were recovering smoothly but due to the length of process, many of them became patients of anxiety and severe depression, fearing that they may never be able to recover from the opium usage throughout their lives (Kaplan, 2011).
Either that person is disturbed financially or socially, going to severe crisis in his normal life, having employment issues or even marriage issues, these are among the most common factors for which a patient or a person to get engaged in substance abuse particularly in medicine abuse. The study has been verified by Dr. Stanley in 2011 who concluded that these are the most common reasons why a person gets involved and substance abuse most of the times because the advantages and disadvantages of a prescription medicine that contains opium or any other abuse able substance are totally educated to the patient by their Physician before they recommend any such medicine even under the most desperate circumstances when a patient finds it difficult to cope well with normal routine of his life due to severe pain or other emergency conditions that he might be suffering from (Stanley, 2011).
Some of them also showed the tendency of missing their family members for many weeks or at times many months, others found it extremely difficult to overcome the pain and severe need of opium that their body felt from time to time. He recommended some procedures that may prove to be helpful for patients who are going through severe anxiety disorder during that treatment process.
Quality entertainment was among such recommendations, making them to divert their attention to words entertainment, games; other held the activities that might prove useful during their tenure of treatment (Kaplan, 2011).
In United States, the process of rehabilitation of such patients who are deeply involved in substance abuse particularly in prescription opium medicine, the issue has been addressed on the government level seriously that was never the case before and there is more and more research going into the process of rehabilitation of such patients in many states including New York, Chicago, Texas and others (Finn, 2011). What is spelled as the need of the hour, is to reduce the risk of patients that during his rehabilitation process because the pain that he goes through cannot be reduced due to a reduced amount of opium that is given to him on daily basis which his body is not used to, there have been cases of served with severe depression and anxiety and patience have been found short of recovering such drastic effects of opium quitting procedure (Finn, 2011).
The treatment of substance abusers has always confronted many controversies from various circles of society. In one form or another, the patient has to go through the process of administrating his recovery in an efficient manner which may prove to be lying the than some think but it is also necessary to rehab a late such patients and bring them back to the normal way of life.
Still, there’s plenty of research and resources involve in addressing the issues of such patients and to facilitate their proper recovery, scientists to have been devising new ways and methods to make this process as easy as possible for such patients because the pain they have already gone through is more than sufficient and at times becomes more of a burden on their life as well as on the lives of those who are a part of their lives (Kaplan, 2011).