The Palestinian-Israeli conflict is considered to be one of the most protracted conflicts in the world’s history. This conflict is a part of wider Arab–Israeli conflict and differs from all other conflicts of the XIX and XX centuries. It is a long-term struggle between two opposite sides who consider the same territory as a part of each of their countries. There have been many attempts to resolve this issue, but all of them failed till nowadays.

There are two possible ways out of this issue: rival countries will either destroy each other or will compromise. The compromise is only possible in case both sides agree to create one single state and recognize the disputed territory. The failures of previous peace negotiations may be explained by the existence of the electoral cycle of military aggression. As part of the Israeli parliamentary system, based on proportional representation and voting for party lists, the small radical parties may be very powerful by filling the missing votes in order to achieve a parliamentary majority. It creates the situation when military aggression against a neighboring state is used to demonstrate the power to the potential voters, which may have the negative impact on the conflict’s solution.

From the other side, the relations between Israelis and Palestinians can not be uniquely characterized as the relationship between the occupiers and occupied. In fact, both sides are ready for a peaceful coexistence which defines political factor as the main obstacle on the way to solve the issue. Moreover, the conflict generates a wide range of views and opinions in both Israeli and Palestinian societies. It reveals the deep controversies that exist not only between Israelis and Palestinians but also within each society. In this case, everything depends on the political leaders of the countries and resistance to radical circles of both the Palestinian and Israeli societies. Apart from the political matters, there are also economic ones. Embargo still exists between Israel and Gaza Strip which is the reason of the further escalation of the conflict. Such protectionism policy leads both countries to poverty which may later make people aggressive against each other.

Thus, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict holds a number of controversial issues that prove it difficult to resolve. The creation of a single state on the basis of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip will only postpone the struggle. The small and independent Palestinian state will be subject to pressure from both Jordan and Israel, which will inevitably lead to strife and violence.