This research seeks to investigate the definition of political parties and different types of political parties available. The research also establishes the history behind political parties and the role that they play in a country. In addition, the research establishes the nature of political parties and theory behind their operation. This research is particularly essential because political parties are found across the globe and influence significantly the course of a country. Individual researchers and institutions have carried out research regarding political parties. The intellectuals have more or less agreed with my topic of discussion, and my paper provides a better interpretation.
This research utilizes a comparative case study. The reason behind a comparative case study is the availability of information the topic of discussion. In addition, a comparative case study facilitates the comparison of ideas held by different scholars regarding the topic of discussion.
Political parties entail political organizations that have nominated members sat in an office with the objective of influencing the policy of the government. Political parties have a long history since they existed from as early as the 18th century (Ryan). There are different types of political parties, and they are defined according to how they perform their roles or the country, which they operate from. Research establishes two main types of political parties that include the cadre parties and political parties. Cadre parties are characterized by restriction of outsiders from its political activities and membership. In addition, the cadre parties are more concerned with contesting elections and allow outsiders to assist only in campaigns. On the other hand, mass parties are more concerned with recruiting new members who they believe will contribute through the provision of income for the party and spreading of the party’s ideology during the election period. Political parties have a wide range of functions such as encouraging of political stability, providing staff needed by the government, coordinating of government institutions, pacification of groups in society, and advancing of demands. It is also essential to note who funds the political parties, and research establishes that political parties operate with the assistance of party members, government funding, and organizations that advocate for the party’s ideologies. Political parties have different emblems and colors that distinguish them from other parties.
Political parties emerged first in the United States, and ever since, they have undergone significant changes globally. The changes observed in political parties since they commenced is attributed to the social and economic nature, which are not constant. Thus, it is also essential to note that political parties have noticeable differences, and these differences are influenced more by the motivations behind the formation of the party. For instance, we note that there is a vast difference in the structural make up of different political parties like the British Labor Party and the French Socialist Party. The difference between the structures of these parties is motivated more by the reasons that resulted to their formation; thus, they have to factor that when they structure themselves. However, it is essential to note that many political parties in different countries are formed because of democracy (Duverger, 17).
Party funding is a crucial area when doing research regarding political parties. According to research, the funding of political parties is usually done by three entities. These include the people affiliated with a political party who use their own funds or seek funds elsewhere for their party. The party members sometimes organize fundraisers to collect money for their political party. Secondly, organizations that are affiliated with a political party also fund the functions of the political party. Such type of funding occurs because the organization is seeking for political immunity when the party that they are funding wins the election. In addition, the organization feature in the funding because they want favors from the political parties when they get to power. Government funding is the third way that political parties get their funding. This type of funding occurs to regulate the spending of political parties and to eliminate voter bribing (Tyler). According to research, political parties require funds in order to meet their daily obligations such as compensating of its workers and facilitation of the political parties activities.
Myriad functions of political parties
Firstly, political parties help in the advancing of demands. In this case, it is noted that different groups in society have different issues that they need to be addressed. Therefore, political parties act as a superb channel through which such issues are advanced. This occurs because the issues are channeled directly to the government, which addresses the issues advanced. Secondly, political parties contribute to the staffing of government. Research establishes that many governments comprise of members of political parties who are elected in elections (Norris, 3). This means without political parties governments will lack staff. It is also essential to note that members of political parties elected to parliament also act as ministers in different dockets of the government. Thirdly, political parties have the function of coordinating the functions of the government. The coordination of government functions in this case occurs in that governments have different constituencies, which political parties monitor (Norris, 3).
Research points out promotion of political stability as the fourth function of political parties. This happens through the peaceful transfer of power, and this occurs when the political parties socialize people to accepting the new regime. According to research, different countries have exhibited political unrest, which is orchestrated by political parties opposing each other during transfer of regimes (Norris, 4). Thus, this proves how political parties are vital in promoting political stability. Another vital example of how political parties contribute to political stability is the way the United States is organized politically. According to research, the United States has two main political parties that have ensured peace and democracy, which differs significantly from countries that have proliferation of political parties (Gandelman). Lastly, coordination of government functions is also the role of the government. The United States political nature is a reliable indicator of this function because of the federal system. Research notes that the different political parties that govern the different regions ensure that the main government is conversant with is taken place in their areas of influence.
Colors and emblems
Colors and emblems feature a lot when it comes to political parties. This is attributed to the fact that they want to be distinguished from other parties when it comes to election. Research intimates that colors and emblems also feature in political parties because of the need to reflect on the party’s origin (Panebianco, 132). Notably, some parties associate themselves with the red color to indicate the struggle that led to the emergence of that party. In other cases, political parties that advance conservative ideologies use the blue or black color. Green political parties and Islamist parties use Green (Panebianco, 138).
According to research, the partisan style of a country is what influences the number of political parties within the country. Thus, we have countries with different partisan styles including nonpartisan, single party states, two political party states, and multiple political parties’ state. Therefore, it should be noted that, in nonpartisan arenas, there might be a ban on political parties, which makes candidates to pursue their aspirations on their own with no party affiliations. Such a situation was noted in the United States during the era of George Washington as president. Countries that practice single party system are deemed more dictatorial than democratic because the government recognizes only one political party legally (Michels, 142). China forms a superb example in this context as the country has one dominant party. In two political party systems, only two political parties have immense influence, which makes other parties not able to penetrate within the system. The United States forms a good example of a country that has two political parties. In multiparty systems, more than two political that contest at the elections. According to research, the third parties in such systems are more likely to form a coalition with one of the dominant parties.
The history of political parties is traced in the United States as it had political parties as early as the 18th century. The system eventually spread around the world as countries deemed political parties essential for democracy to prevail. For political parties to execute their functions well and successfully, they require funding that originates from three main sources including party members, organizations affiliated with the party, and the government. Thus, some of the roles played by political parties include staffing of the government, helping the government perform its task, representing of people’s demands to the government, and promotion of political stability. Another crucial factor regarding political parties is the colors and emblems that they use. Research intimates that political parties use different colors that represent what they advocate for or a color that reveals the struggle that the party underwent prior to its formation. For instance, the green color is associated with Green party and Islamists parties. The partisan system of different countries has been highlighted, and different partisan styles identified including nonpartisan, one party state, two parties states, and states that multi partied. Political parties play a crucial role in many countries; thus, a necessity.