Punjab is the richest state of India. It has attained the remarkable growth since independence (Bhalla 1995). Punjab is remarkable for its plantations and agricultural activities. The major agricultural products in the state comprise of wheat, maize, rice, and bajra.
The population of Punjab is constantly growing. In 2001, the population was estimated to be 24.3 million. However, on January 2011, the number increased to 27.7 million. There are approximately 1.4 million of males and 1.3 females.
The rapid growth of agriculture has had a large impact on the entire economy, especially the agro industries that supply both current and capital inputs and that process agricultural produce. In these latter days, there is a growing disturbance in Punjab about the massive inrush of Hindu laborers from other Indian states. Around 20% of total population in Punjab is migratory from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa (Keshri et al. 2012). The migration is one of the reasons that cause the growth of population. Furthermore, religion and culture play the prominent role in the birth rate. The research has shown that the poverty can also be the reason of population growth. For example, poor people of Punjab believe that the more children they have the more money they will get in the future. One carpenter said “Maybe we will even be able to get some machinery with savings of the other sons. A rich man invests in his machines. We must invest in our children”.
The population growth results in increasing pressure on land and exert the influence on the fragmentation of land. “Low productivity of small land holders leads to poverty, low energy intake and under nutrition, and this, in turn, prevents the development thus creating a vicious circle”. The land becomes exhausted; therefore, agriculture becomes a non-profit occupation. In India, 20 thousand farmers die by their own hands annually, because of despair over high debt and failing crops. “In Punjab, the yield from one hectare has dropped from 4,700 to 4,000 kg a hectare in two decades” (Sangra 2010). The situation is growing worse. The harvests in many states of Punjab are facing a decline and have reached the peak levels.
The scientist declare that the growth of population in Punjab will sooner or later lead to a “total collapse in the entire farming sector if no rapid remedial measures are taken”.