Postmodernism may be defined as a tendency in contemporary culture illustrated by the rejection of objective truth and global cultural narrative. It strengthens the role of language, effect associations, and boost morale. It’s against the use of sharp groupings such as man versus woman, young versus old, white versus black, and free versus slavery. Postmodernism has brought core changes in many cultural fields, among them being: literary linguistics, sociology, architecture, criticism, music and visual arts. Interventions on various past perspectives have been seen to have impacts on current. The thought of postmodernists is an intended deviation from modernist approach. It is mostly used in critical theory to represent apoint of departure for various works of literature ,cinema ,drama ,design,architecture and journalism.In addition to these fields of application, it is also used in elaboration of law,religion and culture as well as in enterprise an marketing.Contraly to modernism which is associated with principles such as unity,identity,certainity and authority,postmodernism is majorly concerned with difference,textuality,skeptism and plurality.
The Human Subject
Between the years , 1960 to 1970 ,numerous thinkers started to question on the validity of the human Subject. Postmodernism obtained a mood amongst scholars, and more broadly amongst those who gave their opinion. Postmodernists were initially charged with an exergerrated subjectivity that debased the objectivity. To many scientists and conservatives, the centre-stage of these new ideas was based on their scepticism towards a particular objective fact. The failing of the postmodernists then, was that they constrained every authority, looking forward for a subjective priority. The criticisms pointed to the deceptive way that the postmodernists redesigned every scientific and moral truths as if these were nothing less than big stories, rich or super narratives. However according to the postmodernists,those stories metanarratives tended to eliminate differences, posing a dead uniformity and sameness.
The Death of the Subject
The death of the subject as depicted in the poststructuralist theory poses some some pressure on pivotal assumptions in the understanding of emotion. Most striking is the question we are led to ponder of is whether the subject, who does not exist any longer, has any importance to do the feeling. Rei Terada answers to this question firmly. According to the response , emotion are not subjective and she argues that , they would have no feelings if they were the subjects . From her perspective, there is a clearly crossed difference from the varnishing of the subject (Hallan). But, its demise has impacted emotional encounter intermingled somewhere between intellectual disposition and nostalgic retreat to the suggestive hypothesis. Terada’s objective is to replace that theory with a set of emotions to derealization of Derrida’s presence. According to Derrida,the very words which were used by the subject would still be designated to what is closest to us.according to him ,by his specialised vocabularly ,the meaning is made very clear. The implication is that the Subject cannot be ignored to be a single idea without difference, but instead, it must in turn be be deconstructed. Derrida makes it very clear that the deconstruction of the claims of objectivity goes simultaneously with the deconstruction of the subjectiveness. The same way a claims is objective to the truth,so is a narrative which ought to be dispelled, and is subjectivity a myth (Hassan).
Postmodern theories have changed significantly in the way history is narrated. It has re-established the means in which history was read , renewed form and the way history has been shown . These changes have not altered the known facts of history, but have changed the form in which these facts have been meant to mean and the reasoning behind them. Postmodernists describe history as a construction. An aspects of the postmodernism encovers other disciplines such as psychology , genealogy and so forth, by trying to help the historian to have a complete picture of their area of specialisation. As a matter of fact, postmodernism builds on a diverse range of perspectives on any given area, going even to the extent of saying that anyone’s individual perspective of a work is as justified as the perspective of, say,the author themself. Before we reach the point in which history has been told, postmodernism evaluates the way history is Postmodernism views this statement and extends it and criticises most aspects of it. Most of the decisions that have been gained in history have been the result of thought.
A thought is used in analyzing this decision where historian make effort to bind together the mixed thoughts of an individual who came up with the original decision while trying to elaborate how the decision was arrived at. The shortcoming of such a declaration would be that in cases of historical things that didn’t occupy any thought. Just in any case , the disappearance of Harold Holt in australia . Any history given of Australia would be insufficient without a mentioning of this occurence. What thought went into his disappearance? There has to exist chances for presumption but there can’t be any known thought that led to his disappearance. Talk of a natural disasters? What kind of thought brought about the destruction of Pompeii? Contradiction remains to be grounded firmly in postmodernism. Postmodernism follows no given guidelines but if a postmodernist negates from following defined conventions, it won’t be observed as postmodern. Another contradiction infringed in postmodernism is the fact that it welcomes diversified views and perspectives. After all, postmodernism also opposes modernist ideas.
Through Postmodernism, the question of context as well as historians upbringing crops up. Some theories explains that, all that is written is as result of its time. The author carries no control over what is being written about the authors; death , and the author’s upbringing , social status , and political views will be evident, as will personal bias.This has lead to the current scholars in looing back in th ebooks of history and trying to understand the context of the settings as well as the social class existing by then.The refocusing of the formerly accepted facts in history not necessarily meaning revising, rather focusing at generally accepted truths of history. Following this postmodern analysis, new findings are formed not regarding to the events , but rather the thought and theory leading to such events. A result of postmodernism is the way through which history has been told that has changed. Regardless of the fact that most historians goes on to write books about their area of specialty, the various ways of production are gaining grounds as well .
Pastiche aims to combine, blend or paste together, several elements. In Postmodernist literature this can be a homage to or a combination of past styles. It can be viewed as an illustration of the hostility, pluralistic, or information mixed context of postmodern society. It can be also be a mixture of various genres to come up with a narrative of its own or to comment on occasions in postmodernity: for example, William Burroughs makes use science and detective fictions. Though pastiche is used commonly to refer to the combination of genres, several other elements are also involved in the metafiction and short time alterations are used commonly in the broader pastiche of the novel in the worldl. On the other hand ,Intertextuality is that relationship between one text in a given novel with another or a text within the intertwined fabric of literary history. Critics directs to this as an amplification of postmodernism’s lack of originality and dependance on cliches. In the postmodern world , Intertextuality literature can be used a reference or parallel to another literary work, an overstated discussion of a work, or the adoption of a particular style. In postmodern literature this commonly manifested as references to some fairy tales (Hoborek).
Postmodernism has been greately applied in various aspect of the modern business world. Professional communication is a postmodern product such that the field typically seperates between those claiming for formalism and the plain style and those pushing for rhetoric and invention to get at the leading pack. Thus, different parts of professional communication can be joined together as well. Along with having the course acting as a postmodern product, professional communication students eventually become postmodernists because they establish a pastiche, a combimation of various guidelines, conventions, plans and re-contextualize them for whatever particular work in any environment they venture .When percieving service learning as a viable practice for professional communication, it is of vital importance to consider whether deminishing the academy for the workplace truly complying with the students ‘ needs (Sean).
It is important for students to grasp an understanding that communication practices changes between organizations. All over the world, shifts of economic and political strength have made the role of weak the state, new ventures of industrial organization have declined the chances for long-term established employment, and the entry of women into the workforce causing some shake up in the traditional patriarchal family.But every action brings a reaction. In the last quarter century,there have been witnessed a worldwide spread of movements of diverse identity which pose a threat to globalization and cosmopolitanism on behalf of people’s control over their culture and their lives. These varies from the former social organizations, which in diverse parts of the world were based on the endavours of well organized workers.