Most religious groups perform purification ritual in an attempt of removing any type of sins before an important event. Christians practice purification through forms such as baptism. Roman Catholics practice purification by dipping fingerprints in Holy Water blessed by the priest and then making the sign of the cross. Most religions claim that infertility of women is caused by sin (Morris, 1987). This causes religious leaders to carry out purification ceremonies in an attempt of washing away sins and restoring fertility. In Islam, purification is done by conducting a ritual prayer. Victor Tunner and Mary Douglas stressed the importance of purification ritual during fertility rituals and healing rituals. A Structualist would argue that this ritual aims at bringing harmony and understanding in different cultures since it aims at eliminating sin.


Magic is the act of producing a desired effect through the act of routines, rituals, fetishes and observing taboos. In baseball, most baseball players believe that they have to win a particular game if they follow their daily routine of waking up or eating a particular dish (Gmelch, 2000). Talisman is an object such as jewelry or special thing that is believed to posses supernatural powers that can protect heal or cause somebody to succeed. Performance is the act of doing certain ceremonial acts that are believed to cause something special to happen to certain individuals or things. In society, people believed that the performance of certain dark magic ceremonial acts could result to the death of a person or misfortunes on the family of that particular person (Weiner, 1985). According to Turner, communitas is the intense feeling of people feeling that they have a strong spirit of social togetherness especially during rituals. This concept helps in maintaining equality among people (Swatos & Kivisto, 1998). Rites of passage are ritual ceremonies that communities perform to mark a significant transformation of a particular person’s life from one stage to another. Among the Jews, circumcision marked the transformation of a boy from childhood to manhood.