This essay focuses on the Civil War of 1860 to 1865 in America, and also discusses the issue of slavery with more attention given to the two national identities, where one is economically modern and based on free labor, while another society’s economy is based on slavery. The other issue be tackled in this essay refers to territorial issues plus the political hegemony with relation to the control of the national government. I will also examine the political hegemony from the pointof view of the U.S constitution and the presidency in 1860.

The two regions involved in this civil war were the South and the North of the USA; the northern was mostly industrial, while the southern was agricultural. The coming into power of Abraham Lincoln, who was keen on abolishing the slave trade, led to tension between the two regions. The South benefited a lot from the slaves in the white plantations, which was extremely important as far as the whites needed to meet the economic demand of their production.The modern economics of the slave trade means analyzing the output of slavery.  In modern times this is more emphasized through comparison of free labor and slavery on the economy. It was evident that the productivity of the work at will was more efficient as compared to the work while being forced, as it was in the South. In the south, the owners of the plantations had to deal with the issues of the slaves feigning sickness or breaking the farming tools so The territorial issue was another key concern of the civil war that lasted for not less than six years. This takes us back to the period of 1803 to 1854, where it was about the expanding of the land, which was mostly being done through conquests. This was continuing for years increasing tension between the states that were conquered and their territory captured. For example, the acquisition of the states such as the California, Missouri by the South, which palyed a huge role in the slave trade, also affected the West. The southerners felt that the expansion meant smart business for their economic activities facilitated by slavery. The North was apprehensive of this expansion interest and with the coming into the presidency of a Republican president tension brewed. The reason for that was that Abraham Lincoln was against slavery right before he was elected. The North was on a different aspect of ensuring economic activity and had taken to pursue the Industrial Revolution. With this upcoming spirit of industrialization slavery had no place in the northern part of the country and was ready to block any expansion of the slave trade in to their territory by the southerners.

Political hegemony is the leadership dominance by one state or nation over others within a confederation. The coming in to power of a republican, who was against such ideas as strong central government and loose interpretation of the constitution, created tension.  Previously, the constitution matters used to be done secretly, and disgruntled leaders of the South felt a new constitution framework would interfere with their independence and the territorial issues. The new constitution caused rifts between the southerners, and since they felt the states’ rights not being respected, this led to the civil war through the secession attempts. Most of the slave states became minor states in the representation in the House. With that trend it was evident that they would become dominated too in the Electoral College and the senate from the dominant North. Therefore, some of these states in the South felt that secession was the best way to avoid being a minority and started forming their own confederation.

Finally, the presidency in 1860 was another cause of the civil war, especially with the presidency ideologies and the view on the slave trade by the elected president Lincoln in 1860. The South feared the new elected president would not support their expansion idea and the slave trade was going to be abolished by the government.

In conclusion, the civil war was mainly attributed to the parties’ ideologies regarding slave trade. Although, other factors such as political hegemony and territorial issues also played the part. These other factors were all pegged on the slavery issue.

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