The previous review of the literature shows that inefficient usage of time causes stress. A survey carried at University of Bolton evaluates the psychological status of 1000 undergraduate students. The results are alarming, showing that more than half of the university students are suffering from various severities of depression, anxiety and psychological problems that were due to improper Time Management. Students remark that they are always stressful concerning their study matter, future career, examination stress and managing time. Significantly, stress relationship with quality of sleep occurs in the students. A recent research emphasizes that students with daytime dysfunction in campus and sleep disturbances lacks Time Management skills, and they complain high intensity of stress. Improper Time Management correlates to poor quality of sleep, and poor sleep results negative consequences in academic growth. (Britton, 1991)
Objectives of Research
Time management sleep quality and stress correlates with each other, and each of the factor affects student performance. The objective of this research is to explore the possible priority so as to tackle and prevent the problem. Further, this research will try to explore a relationship of Time Management with stress and sleep quality and suggests suitable measures.
Overall, by review of the previous literature and previous observations, four hypotheses seem to appear in this study: hypothesis one shows time management disposition positively relates with students’ academic performance. Hypothesis two states perceived stress negatively correlate with academic growth. Hypothesis three states, quality of sleep negatively correlates with academic achievement and hypothesis number four, time management character is a negative forecaster of stress. (Adams, 1997)
Data collection and Analysis techniques
By adopting convenience and snowball method of sampling, 110 full time undergraduate psychology students from University of Bolton involves in the present research. Fifty three (48.6%) and 37 out of 110 (32%) are third year and second year undergraduate psychology students of BoltonUniversity. The remaining 20 of them (19.4%) are part time psychology students. The students age from 18 to 26 years old. The majority of students are 21 years old (33.7%) and 22 years old (25.6%). The mean age works out to be 22.66 years old. Fifty Nine (53.3%) are female while 49 (45.8%) of them are male and two’s gender is missing (approximately 1%). Forty three (38.4%) and 22 (21.3%) out of 110 students achieved a cumulative grade point average of 2.51 to 2.98 and 3.00 to 3.38 respectively. (Adams, 1999)
First of all, approval from the University Institutional Board is necessary before starting the data collection. Besides data collection, data and consent forms are anonymous and strictly confidential so as to protect the identity of students. Distribution of questionnaires takes place during break time and class sessions. Eighty four students were able to complete questionnaires and returned them in time. The remaining students join the survey by snowball sampling and these students also approach other students who are full time psychology students. In this research, students have to answer four sets of questionnaires. To ensure that students understand all those questions properly, this study implements Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Time Management Disposition Inventory and Perceived Stress scales.
The procedure starts with distribution of approximately 175 questionnaires to psychology undergraduate students of BoltonUniversity. One hundred and eleven questionnaires received from students show a response rate of 65.5%. Moreover, Shahani (1993) recommends that the minimum numbers of students in a research for running multiple regressions should be 16 cases for each forecaster. The present research involves three predictors, which implies that this research requires minimum 45 cases and fulfills the criteria obligations.
After collecting data, coding and feeding into a statistics software program begins by entering Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. With the help of SPSS then relevant statistics, correlation, descriptive statistics, multiple regression and linear regression starts for analysis of the data. Besides, all tests comply carrying a 94% confidential interval.
The measurements that include in the present research are TMDI Inventory, academic performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Perceived Stress Scale, and academic performance. TMDI applies in the present research. TMDI calculates time management in three domains, such as the time value, time control and time efficacy. Students need to response a six point Likert scale (1 = not agreed at all to 6 = fully agree). Cronbach’s alpha for TMDI is .62 to 86 and retest dependability is .72 to .82, which shows that the measure is from medium to highly dependable.
Moreover, the internal uniformity of TMDI is .69, and it corresponds well with TMQ and TMB recommending that TMDI possess both concurrent and internal validity. Therefore, for evaluating stress in students Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a widely popular method. It uses a 6-point Likert scale (0 = never and 5 = remarkably often) point out unpredictable, uncontrollable, and excessive loading in the previous month. The Perceived Stress Scale is reliable and valid scale.
Perceived Stress Scale remarkably correlates with Events and Life Score and depressive symptoms in three student samples (N= 331 and 115). From the same student samples, the Cronbach alphas of 15-item, PSS is .85 and .86. Furthermore, among the general population of student, the consistency of PSS is .76.
Sleep quality. The present research employs the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to evaluate sleep quality during the past month. Such studies usually adopt PSQI to examine subjective sleep quality, and its purpose is to differentiate between healthy and poor sleep.
It is a self designed questionnaire which contains seven domains: perceived sleep latency, sleep quality, sleep hours, sleep efficacy, disturbed sleep, use of medication, and daytime un-alertness. The sum of these scores of seven domains is the global score. PSQI implements four-point Likert scale for each of the seven fields, with a global score that ranges from 0-20. Higher global PSQI score depicts poor sleep quality while lower score reflects better sleep quality. The PSQI proved to be trustworthy. The internal consistency is 0.82 and test retest reliability is 0.84 (p < 0.001).
Academic performance. For measuring students’ academic performance and avoiding missing data, students need to report the series of GPA instead of the number. According to the range of cumulative grade point average, academic performance classify into five categories (fail = below 3.00, pass = 3.00 to 3.19, third class = 3.20 to 3.49, second lower class = 3.50 to 3.99, second upper class = 4.00 to 4.39 and first class = 4.40 to 5.00).
Besides, in order to get interval, scale variables for running regression analysis, students class changes to dummy variables with yes coded as 1 and no coded as 0. For example, students with first class code as 1. If not, they code as 0.
The present research adopts descriptive statistics. Kendall’s tau-b and Spearman correlation, Pearson, Mann-Whitney U test, and regression evaluates the connectivity among time management, sleep quality, stress and academic output among students in Bolton University. The results divide into five sections: results of the reliability and validity tests of each measurement, descriptive statistics, exploratory data analyses, data screening, and hypotheses testing. (Macan, 1990)
The validity and reliability of measurements correspond to the findings from the past studies, TMDI, PSS, and PQSI shows highly valid and reliable. Table 1 presents the distinction between the past and the present study’s findings on the Cronbach’s alpha for each measurement.