The study is qualitative in nature as it addresses the individuals’ perspectives in relation to the topic being researched. According to Vishnevsky and Beanlands (2004), qualitative research and subjective approach present the different experiences by the individuals being studied. This further entails that individual perspectives will be gathered using a qualitative approach, which is the aim of the research study being critiqued. Ryan (2007) contemplates on this idea further by stating that qualitative approach does not generalize population data but rather explores the individuals’ experiences.
Areas to be evaluated in this process include critique on reference or citation style of the article, the authors’ qualification, research title, clarity of statement in the abstract, statement of the problem, relevance and organization of literature provided, relationship between framework and theories provided, relationship of framework to nursing concepts, research questions’ formulation, ethical considerations of the research methodology, appropriateness of research methodology utilized, and clarity of statements in regards to grammar and syntax.
Ryan (2007) states that there exist elements that influence the “believability” (sic) of a research, which includes the authors’ academic and professional skills in presenting the study. The investigation by Ward-Griffin (2010) was not able to state in the article their academic qualification for conducting the research. There is no account that identifies who the main researchers were, their academic qualifications, and whether they have received assistance from academic professionals in conducting their research.
Another element considered by Ryan (2007) includes those elements that influence “robustness” (sic) of the study. This pertains to statements regarding the phenomenon of interest, purpose or significance of the research, and its literature review. A synopsis of the study was provided but there was no abstract that would show the particular databases utilized for searching relevant materials about the topic using the specified keywords. The synopsis was able to present a clear overview of the study, the sample size and methodology conceptualized, and the results of their study in regards to recommendations and findings. Ryan (2007), indicates that these are essential in providing the readers with the verity and reliability presented in an investigation. Furthermore, in mutual agreement, Polit and Beck (2009) explained that the abstract should clearly summarize the reports’ main features.
The study by Ward-Griffin
The study by Ward-Griffin et al (2010) provided a background for their research that is implied in its introduction. The authors were able to present the current scenario in regards to caring for people with dementia by different family members. They were able to clearly present the problem they aim to conduct at the end of the article’s introduction. The authors were also able to present their statement in a persuasive manner that convinces the reader to ponder on the issue being researched. It is also a problem that presented a timely relevance to nursing practice. Polit and Beck (2009) depicted the significance of determining the abovementioned factors in order to certify the plausibility of the research. Nonetheless, though the authors were able to present the purpose and significance of their study, they failed to present justifications for utilizing a qualitative approach in their survey. They succeeded in stating the frameworks and methodology utilized but were not able to state justifications to the exigency of using such an approach compared to other frameworks available. Ryan (2007) explained that researchers should be able to justify their research approach in order to attest their claim for the appropriateness and effectiveness of their proposal.
The literature review
The literature review was comprehensive but failed to identify the database from where the relevant articles were gathered. They were able to identify some research materials available that would justify their claim regarding the gap in the field they were trying to pursue. Polit and Beck (2009) state that qualitative research should show an adequate summary of existing body of knowledge relevant to the investigation being studied since the literature review will provide the solid basis for conducting a new study. Furthermore, Meadows (2003) explained that the utilized literature will provide the basis for the research and the basis for determining the findings. There are two types of literature: a) written after data collection and b) written before data collection (Ryan et al. 2007; Meadows, 2003). Thus, based on the article, it is concluded that the literature review follows the second type and is written to provide an extensive and comprehensive background for the research. Meadows (2003) and Ryan (2007) agree that a literature review of this type must provide a balanced account of previous researches and frameworks (both conceptual and theoretical) in order to provide a solid foundation for the study conducted.
The research by Ward-Griffin et al (2010) was able to provide the framework they utilized for their study. Using frameworks will provide the parameters for the study in generating literature review, data collection and analysis, and presentation of findings (Ryan et al. 2007; Parahoo, 2006). The authors were able to describe the theoretical framework and its relevance to their study, which, according to Ryan (2007), is also an important element.
Ryan (2007) and Polit and Beck (2009) stated the importance of establishing the methods and philosophical underpinnings in the investigation. The researchers were able to identify the limitations of their study.
The researchers were able to conduct the survey based on a methodology that would enable them to protect the individual participants’ rights particularly among those with an illness and vulnerable groups (Ryan et al. 2007). According to Polit and Beck (2009), this information is essential to safeguard the rights of the studied participants. The researchers were able to properly identify their participators and to ascertain that they have the needed capacity to sign consent forms and have adequate understanding regarding the researchers’ purpose. Beauchamp and Childress (2001) further explained that moral autonomy implies that study participants have the prerogative to withdraw from the research at any time. The researchers were able to identify this phenomenon in the course of their study. Parahoo (2006) states that it is vital to provide assurance to participants regarding their identities which is an ethical dilemma that would arise from interviews if there is no extensive review and editing is made prior to inclusion of verbatim notes.
The research design and methods for data collection were comprehensively discussed by the researchers with considerations made on rigour, credibility, transferability, and conformability. According to Ryan (2007), these are common criteria in evaluating qualitative research studies. The researchers’ method of collecting data involved interviews, observations, and note taking which, according to Ryan (2007), are the proper strategies to be utilized in conducting qualitative research data gathering. The researchers were also able to provide rationalization in relevance to their utilization of the above methods for data gathering. The researchers mentioned that they conducted interviews using a semi-structured set of questions throughout their research which, according to Ryan (2007) and Holloway and Wheeler (2010), is the most common method in conducting qualitative researches.
The researchers were able to present credibility in presenting their research by explaining consistency between participants’ perception and the researchers’ interpretation. Koch (2006) identified and explained the relevance of establishing credibility through consistency of reports generated in the research.
Furthermore, the researchers were able to provide adequate number of interactions between researchers and participants, which is essential in providing a sound research design according to Polit and Beck (2009). Moreover, Polit and Beck (2009) explained that the designs theme should encapsulate the meaning of the data presented as well provide an insightful picture of the phenomenon under study.
The researches succeeded in integrating each set of data in a logical presentation that established a clear idea about the topics they were pursuing. Polit and Beck (2009) indicated the appropriateness and effectiveness of including the use of graphics to further explain concepts which are also provided by the researchers.
The researchers were able to draw a discussion that is socially and culturally adept based on interpreted findings. In addition, they were also able to connect their findings with previous studies they have presented in their literature review. They were also able to coincide their interpretations with their set limitations presented in the beginning of the survey. Moreover, they indicated the transferability of their findings to other investigations. All of these elements are essential, according to Polit and Beck (2009). Ryan (2007) further explains the nature of transferability as it allows the application of the current research findings to other studies. Further it is explained that the results should be able to establish either a link with the data gathered and presented in a narrative manner or through description of the phenomenon being studied (Ryan et al. 2007).
In regards to the researchers’ presentation of their recommendations, they were able to discuss the implications of their findings to future nursing research in a complete and extensive manner.
The researchers were able to present a comprehensive list of references for their study. References include books, journal articles, news reports, government documents, and other printed media that is written at the end of the study which, according to Polit and Beck (2009) and Ryan (2007), will provide readers with supplementary materials concerning the research being studied.
Therefore, it is concluded that the research done by Ward-Griffin et al (2010) is a valid research that can be utilized for improving healthcare practices of nurses and other professionals in the healthcare field. The only setback is that the academic qualifications were not established at the beginning and in the end of research. Furthermore, their academic backgrounds need identification for the future researchers to have relevant knowledge on how to contact them as references.